Tiger Woods PGA Tour WII Golf Arcade Game Open Course US Computer Nintendo Retro

$4.46 Buy It Now or Best Offer 3d 21h, $12.53 Shipping, 30-Day Returns, eBay Money Back Guarantee

Seller: notinashyway (17,045) 99.7%, Location: Manchester, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401822680179 Tiger WoodsPGA Tour 07 Complete with booklet All-New Team Tour Mode Featuring 21 of the world's top players 21 Championship and Fantasy Courses Innovative character creation tool All-New ESPN Integration More Mini-Game Challenges Earn respect and climb the ranks with Team Play in Tiger Woods PGA TOUR 07. The top-selling golf video game franchise is packed with new content, including 21 new courses and 50 golfers. In all-new Team Tour mode, assemble a team, improve team status, establish rivalries, and compete for the coveted EA Cup as you chase down Tiger Woods and company. I have more sporting items like this on Ebay so Please.... .....CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Buy with Confidence please read my feedback from over 12,000 satisfied customerRead how quickly they receive their items - I post all my items within 24 hours of receiving payment International customers are welcome. I have shipped items to over 120 countries International orders may require longer handling time if held up at customs If there is a problem I always give a full refund Returns are acceptedIf your unhappy with your item please return it for a full refund I am a UK Seller with 10 Years of eBay Selling Experience Why not treat yourself? I always combine multiple items and send an invoice with discounted postage I leave instant feedback upon receiving yours All payment methods accepted from all countries in all currencies Are you looking for a Interesting conversation piece? A birthday present for the person who has everything?A comical gift to cheer someone up? or a special unique gift just to say thank you? You now know where to look for a bargain!Please Take a Moment Click Here to Check Out My Other items *** Please Do Not Click Here *** Click Here to Add me to Your List of Favorite SellersThe Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe Tiger Woods Personal information Full name Eldrick Tont Woods Nickname Tiger Born December 30, 1975 (age 43) Cypress, California Height 6 ft 1 in (185 cm)[1] Weight 185 lb (84 kg)[1] Nationality United States Residence Jupiter Island, Florida Spouse Elin Nordegren (m. 2004; div. 2010) Children 2 Career College Stanford University (two years) Turned professional 1996 Current tour(s) PGA Tour (joined 1996) Professional wins 108[2] Number of wins by tour PGA Tour 81 (2nd all time) European Tour 41 (3rd all time)[notes 1][3] Japan Golf Tour 2 Asian Tour 1 PGA Tour of Australasia 1 Other 16 Best results in major championships (wins: 15) Masters Tournament Won: 1997, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2019 PGA Championship Won: 1999, 2000, 2006, 2007 U.S. Open Won: 2000, 2002, 2008 The Open Championship Won: 2000, 2005, 2006 Achievements and awards PGA Tour Rookie of the Year 1996 PGA Player of the Year 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2013 PGA Tour Player of the Year 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2013 PGA Tour leading money winner 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2013 Vardon Trophy 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013 Byron Nelson Award 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 FedEx Cup Champion 2007, 2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom 2019 (For a full list of awards, see here) Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He ranks second in both major championships and PGA Tour wins and also holds numerous records in golf.[4] Woods is widely regarded as being one of the greatest golfers in the history of the sport. Following an outstanding junior, college, and amateur golf career, Woods turned professional in 1996 at the age of 20. By the end of April 1997, he had won three PGA Tour events in addition to his first major, the 1997 Masters, which he won by 12 strokes in a record-breaking performance. He first reached the number one position in the world rankings in June 1997, less than a year after turning pro. Throughout the first decade of the 21st century, Woods was the dominant force in golf; he was the top-ranked golfer in the world from August 1999 to September 2004 (264 weeks) and again from June 2005 to October 2010 (281 weeks). During this time, he won thirteen of golf's major championships. The next decade of Woods' career was marked by multiple comebacks from both personal problems and injuries. He took a self-imposed hiatus from professional golf from December 2009 to early April 2010 in an attempt to resolve marital issues with his estranged wife Elin. His many alleged extramarital indiscretions were revealed by several women through worldwide media sources, and the couple eventually divorced.[5] Woods fell to number 58 in the world rankings in November 2011, before ascending to once again reach the No.1 ranking between March 2013 and May 2014.[6][7] However, Woods' personal problems persisted outside of golf; injuries led him to undergo four back surgeries in 2014, 2015 and 2017.[8] He competed in only one tournament between August 2015 and January 2018; this led him to drop out of the rankings of the world's top 1,000 golfers.[9][10] On his return to regular competition, Woods made steady progress to the top of the game, winning his first tournament in five years at the Tour Championship in September 2018 and his first major in eleven years at the 2019 Masters. Woods has broken numerous golf records. He has been World Number One for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks of any golfer. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record eleven times[11] and has won the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times. Woods has the record of leading the money list in ten different seasons. He has won 15 professional major golf championships (trailing only Jack Nicklaus, who leads with 18) and 81 PGA Tour events (second all time behind Sam Snead, who won 82).[12] Woods leads all active golfers in career major wins and career PGA Tour wins. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and is only the second golfer (after Nicklaus) to have achieved a career Grand Slam three times. Woods has won 18 World Golf Championships. In May 2019, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and is the fourth golfer to receive the honor.[13] Background and family Woods and his father Earl at Fort Bragg, North Carolina in 2004 Woods was born in 1975 in Cypress, California,[14] to Earl[15] and Kultida "Tida" Woods.[16] He is their only child and has two half-brothers, Earl Jr. and Kevin, as well as a half-sister named Royce from his father's first marriage.[17] Kultida (née Punsawad) is originally from Thailand, where Earl had met her when he was on a tour of duty there in 1968. She is of mixed Thai, Chinese, and Dutch ancestry.[18] Earl was a retired lieutenant colonel and Vietnam War veteran who reported African American, Chinese, and Native American descent.[19] Earl's mother Maude Carter was light skinned.[20] Tiger describes his ethnic make-up as "Cablinasian" (a syllabic abbreviation he coined from Caucasian, Black, American Indian, and Asian).[21] Woods' first name, Eldrick, was coined by his mother because it began with "E" (for Earl) and ended with "K" (for Kultida). His middle name Tont is a traditional Thai name. He was nicknamed Tiger in honor of his father's friend Col. Vuong Dang Phong, who had also been known as Tiger.[22] Woods has a niece, Cheyenne Woods, who played for the Wake Forest University golf team and turned professional in 2012 when she made her pro debut in the LPGA Championship.[23] Early life and amateur golf career Woods grew up in Orange County, California. He was a child prodigy who was introduced to golf before the age of two by his athletic father, Earl Woods. Earl was a single-digit handicap amateur golfer who also was one of the earliest African-American college baseball players at Kansas State University.[24] Tiger's father was a member of the military and had playing privileges at the Navy golf course beside the Joint Forces Training Base in Los Alamitos, which allowed Tiger to play there. Tiger also played at the par 3 Heartwell golf course in Long Beach, as well as some of the municipals in Long Beach.[25] In 1978, Tiger putted against comedian Bob Hope in a television appearance on The Mike Douglas Show. At age three, he shot a 48 over nine holes at the Navy course. At age five, he appeared in Golf Digest and on ABC's That's Incredible![26] Before turning seven, Tiger won the Under Age 10 section of the Drive, Pitch, and Putt competition, held at the Navy Golf Course in Cypress, California.[27] In 1984 at the age of eight, he won the 9–10 boys' event, the youngest age group available, at the Junior World Golf Championships.[28] He first broke 80 at age eight.[29] He went on to win the Junior World Championships six times, including four consecutive wins from 1988 to 1991.[30][31][32][33][34] Woods' father Earl wrote that Tiger first defeated him at the age of 11 years, with Earl trying his best. Earl lost to Tiger every time from then on.[35] Woods first broke 70 on a regulation golf course at age 12.[36] When Woods was 13 years old, he played in the 1989 Big I, which was his first major national junior tournament. In the final round, he was paired with pro John Daly, who was then relatively unknown. The event's format placed a professional with each group of juniors who had qualified. Daly birdied three of the last four holes to beat Woods by only one stroke.[37] As a young teenager, Woods first met Jack Nicklaus in Los Angeles at the Bel-Air Country Club, when Nicklaus was performing a clinic for the club's members. Woods was part of the show, and he impressed Nicklaus and the crowd with his skills and potential.[38] Earl Woods had researched in detail the career accomplishments of Nicklaus and had set his young son the goals of breaking those records.[36] Woods was 15 years old and a student at Western High School in Anaheim when he became the youngest U.S. Junior Amateur champion; this was a record that stood until it was broken by Jim Liu in 2010.[39] He was named 1991's Southern California Amateur Player of the Year (for the second consecutive year) and Golf Digest Junior Amateur Player of the Year. In 1992, he defended his title at the U.S. Junior Amateur Championship, becoming the tournament's first two-time winner. He also competed in his first PGA Tour event, the Nissan Los Angeles Open (he missed the 36-hole cut), and was named Golf Digest Amateur Player of the Year, Golf World Player of the Year, and Golfweek National Amateur of the Year.[40][41] The following year, Woods won his third consecutive U.S. Junior Amateur Championship; he remains the event's only three-time winner.[42] In 1994, at the TPC at Sawgrass in Florida, he became the youngest winner of the U.S. Amateur Championship, a record he held until 2008 when it was broken by Danny Lee.[43] He was a member of the American team at the 1994 Eisenhower Trophy World Amateur Golf Team Championships (winning), and the 1995 Walker Cup (losing).[44][45] Woods graduated from Western High School at age 18 in 1994 and was voted "Most Likely to Succeed" among the graduating class. He had starred for the high school's golf team under coach Don Crosby.[46] Woods overcame difficulties with stuttering as a boy.[47] This was not known until he wrote a letter to a boy who contemplated suicide. Woods wrote, "I know what it's like to be different and to sometimes not fit in. I also stuttered as a child and I would talk to my dog and he would sit there and listen until he fell asleep. I also took a class for two years to help me, and I finally learned to stop."[48] College golf career Woods was heavily recruited by college golf powers. He chose Stanford University, the 1994 NCAA champions. He enrolled at Stanford in the fall of 1994 under a golf scholarship and won his first collegiate event, the 40th Annual William H. Tucker Invitational, that September.[49] He selected a major in economics and was nicknamed "Urkel" by college teammate Notah Begay III.[50] In 1995, he successfully defended his U.S. Amateur title at the Newport Country Club in Rhode Island[43] and was voted Pac-10 Player of the Year, NCAA First Team All-American, and Stanford's Male Freshman of the Year (an award that encompasses all sports).[51][52] At age 19, Woods participated in his first PGA Tour major, the 1995 Masters, and tied for 41st as the only amateur to make the cut; two years later, he would win the tournament by 12 strokes. At age 20 in 1996, he became the first golfer to win three consecutive U.S. Amateur titles[53] and won the NCAA individual golf championship.[54] In winning the silver medal as leading amateur at The Open Championship, he tied the record for an amateur aggregate score of 281.[55] He left college after two years in order to turn professional in the golf industry. In 1996, Woods moved out of California, stating in 2013 that it was due to the state's high tax rate.[56] Professional career Main article: Professional golf career of Tiger Woods Woods in 2005 Woods turned pro at age 20 in August 1996 and immediately signed advertising deals with Nike, Inc. and Titleist that ranked as the most lucrative endorsement contracts in golf history at that time.[57][58] Woods was named Sports Illustrated's 1996 Sportsman of the Year and PGA Tour Rookie of the Year.[59] On April 13, 1997, he won his first major, the Masters, in record-breaking fashion and became the tournament's youngest winner at age 21.[60] Two months later, he set the record for the fastest ascent to No. 1 in the Official World Golf Rankings.[61] After a lackluster 1998, Woods finished the 1999 season with eight wins, including the PGA Championship, a feat not achieved since Johnny Miller did it in 1974.[62][63] Woods was severely myopic; his eyesight had a rating of 11 diopters. In order to correct this problem, he underwent successful laser eye surgery in 1999,[64] and he immediately resumed winning tour events. (He received money from TLC Laser Eye Centers to endorse them,[65] In 2007, his vision again began to deteriorate, and he underwent laser eye surgery a second time.[66]) In 2000, Woods won six consecutive events on the PGA Tour, which was the longest winning streak since Ben Hogan did it in 1948. One of these was the U.S. Open, where he broke or tied nine tournament records in what Sports Illustrated called "the greatest performance in golf history", in which Woods won the tournament by a record 15-stroke margin and earned a check for $800,000.[67] At age 24, he became the youngest golfer to achieve the Career Grand Slam.[68] At the end of 2000, Woods had won nine of the twenty PGA Tour events he entered and had broken the record for lowest scoring average in tour history. He was named the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year, the only athlete to be honored twice, and was ranked by Golf Digest magazine as the twelfth-best golfer of all time.[69] Woods at the 2004 Ryder Cup When Woods won the 2001 Masters, he became the only player to win four consecutive major professional golf titles, although not in the same calendar year. This achievement came to be known as the "Tiger Slam."[70] Following a stellar 2001 and 2002 in which he continued to dominate the tour, Woods' career hit a slump.[62][71] He did not win a major in 2003 or 2004. In September 2004, Vijay Singh overtook Woods in the Official World Golf Rankings, ending Woods' record streak of 264 weeks at No. 1.[72] Woods rebounded in 2005, winning six PGA Tour events and reclaiming the top spot in July after swapping it back and forth with Singh over the first half of the year.[73] Woods began dominantly in 2006, winning his first two PGA tournaments but failing to capture his fifth Masters championship in April.[74] Following the death of his father in May, Woods took some time off from the tour and appeared rusty upon his return at the U.S. Open at Winged Foot, where he missed the cut.[75] However, he quickly returned to form and ended the year by winning six consecutive tour events. At the season's close, Woods had 54 total wins that included 12 majors; he had broken the tour records for both total wins and total majors wins over eleven seasons.[76] Woods at the 2006 Masters Woods continued to excel in 2007 and the first part of 2008. In April 2008, he underwent knee surgery and missed the next two months on the tour.[77] Woods returned for the 2008 U.S. Open, where he struggled the first day but ultimately claimed a dramatic sudden death victory over Rocco Mediate that followed an 18-hole playoff, after which Mediate said, "This guy does things that are just not normal by any stretch of the imagination," and Kenny Perry added, "He beat everybody on one leg."[78] Two days later, Woods announced that he would miss the remainder of the season due to additional knee surgery, and that his knee was more severely damaged than previously revealed, prompting even greater praise for his U.S. Open performance. Woods called it "my greatest ever championship."[79] In Woods' absence, TV ratings for the remainder of the season suffered a huge decline from 2007.[80] Woods competing at the third annual Earl Woods Memorial Pro-Am (July 1, 2009) Woods had a much anticipated return to golf in 2009, when he performed well. His comeback included a spectacular performance at the 2009 Presidents Cup, but he failed to win a major, the first year since 2004 that he had not done so.[81] After his marital infidelities came to light and received massive media coverage at the end of 2009 (see further details below), Woods announced in December that he would be taking an indefinite break from competitive golf.[5] In February 2010, he delivered a televised apology for his behavior, saying "I was wrong and I was foolish."[82] During this period, several companies ended their endorsement deals with Woods.[83] Woods returned to competition in April at the 2010 Masters, where he finished tied for fourth place.[84] He followed the Masters with poor showings at the Quail Hollow Championship and the Players Championship, where he withdrew in the fourth round, citing injury.[85] Shortly afterward, Hank Haney, Woods' coach since 2003, resigned the position. In August, Woods hired Sean Foley as Haney's replacement. The rest of the season went badly for Woods, who failed to win a single event for the first time since turning professional, while nevertheless finishing the season ranked No. 2 in the world. Woods at a Chevron World Challenge charity event (2011) In 2011, Woods' performance continued to suffer; this took its toll on his ranking. After falling to No. 7 in March, he rebounded to No. 5 with a strong showing at the 2011 Masters, where he tied for fourth place.[86] Due to leg injuries incurred at the Masters, he missed several summer stops on the PGA Tour. In July, he fired his longtime caddy Steve Williams (who was shocked by the dismissal), and replaced him on an interim basis with friend Bryon Bell until he hired Joe LaCava.[87] After returning to tournament play in August, Woods continued to falter, and his ranking gradually fell to a low of #58.[7] He rose to No. 50 in mid-November after a third-place finish at the Emirates Australian Open, and broke his winless streak with a victory at December's Chevron World Challenge.[7][88] Woods began his 2012 season with two tournaments (the Abu Dhabi HSBC Golf Championship and the AT&T Pebble Beach National Pro-Am) where he started off well but struggled on the final rounds. Following the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship, where he was knocked out in the second round by missing a 5-foot putt,[89] Woods revised his putting technique and tied for second at the Honda Classic, with the lowest final round score in his PGA Tour career. After a short time off due to another leg injury, Woods won the Arnold Palmer Invitational, his first win on the PGA Tour since the BMW Championship in September 2009. Following several dismal performances, Woods notched his 73rd PGA Tour win at the Memorial Tournament in June, tying Jack Nicklaus in second place for most PGA Tour victories;[90] a month later, Woods surpassed Nicklaus with a win at the AT&T National, to trail only Sam Snead, who accumulated 82 PGA tour wins.[91] The year 2013 would bring a return of Woods' dominating play. In January, he won the Farmers Insurance Open by four shots for his 75th PGA Tour win. It was the seventh time he had won the event.[92] In March, he won the WGC-Cadillac Championship, also for the seventh time, giving him his 17th WGC title and first since 2009.[93] Two weeks later, he won the Arnold Palmer Invitational, winning the event for a record-tying 8th time. The win moved him back to the top of the world rankings.[94] To commemorate that achievement, Nike was quick to launch an ad with the tagline "winning takes care of everything".[95] During the 2013 Masters, Woods faced disqualification after unwittingly admitting in a post-round interview with ESPN that he had taken an illegal drop on the par-5 15th hole when his third shot had bounced off the pin and into the water. After further review of television footage, Woods was assessed a two-stroke penalty for the drop but was not disqualified.[96] He finished tied for fourth in the event. Woods won The Players Championship in May 2013, his second career win at the event, notching his fourth win of the 2013 season. It was the quickest he had gotten to four wins in any season in his professional career. Woods practicing in a bunker prior to the start of the 2014 Quicken Loans National Woods had a poor showing at the 2013 U.S. Open as a result of an elbow injury that he sustained at The Players Championship. In finishing at 13-over-par, he recorded his worst score as a professional and finished 12 strokes behind winner Justin Rose. After a prolonged break because of the injury, during which he missed the Greenbrier Classic and his own AT&T National, he returned at the Open Championship at Muirfield. Despite being in contention all week and beginning the final round only two strokes behind Lee Westwood, he struggled with the speed of the greens and could only manage a 3-over-par 74 that left him tied for 6th place, five strokes behind eventual winner Phil Mickelson. Two weeks later, Woods returned to form at the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, recording his 5th win of the season and 8th win at the event in its 15-year history. His second round 61 matched his record score on the PGA Tour and could easily have been a 59 were it not for some short missed birdie putts on the closing holes. This gave him a seven-stroke lead that he held onto for the rest of the tournament. Woods would never contend at the PGA Championship at Oak Hill Country Club and would come short of winning a major for the 5th full season, only contending in two of the four majors in 2013. After a slow start to 2014, Woods sustained an injury during the final round of the Honda Classic and was unable to finish the tournament. He withdrew after the 13th hole, citing back pain.[97] He subsequently competed in the WGC-Cadillac Championship but was visibly in pain during much of the last round. He was forced to skip the Arnold Palmer Invitational at the end of March 2014,[98] and after undergoing back surgery, he announced on April 1 that he would miss the Masters for the first time since 1994.[99] Woods returned at the Quicken Loans National in June, however he stated that his expectations for the week were low. He would struggle with nearly every aspect of his game and miss the cut. He next played at The Open Championship, contested at Hoylake, where Woods had won eight years prior. Woods fired a brilliant 69 in the first round to put himself in contention, but shot 77 on Friday and would eventually finish 69th. Despite his back pain, he played at the 2014 PGA Championship where he failed to make the cut. On August 25, 2014, Woods and his swing coach Sean Foley parted ways. In the four years under Foley, he won eight times but no majors. He had previously won eight majors with Harmon and six with Haney. Woods said there is currently no timetable to find a replacement swing coach.[100] On February 5, 2015, Woods withdrew from the Farmers Insurance Open after another back injury.[101] Woods stated on his website that it was unrelated to his previous surgery and he would take a break from golf until his back healed.[102] He returned for the Masters, finishing in a tie for 17th. In the final round, Woods injured his wrist after his club hit a tree root. He later stated that a bone popped out of his wrist, but he adjusted it back into place and finished the round.[103] Woods then missed the cut at the 2015 U.S. Open and Open Championship, the first time Woods missed the cut at consecutive majors, finishing near the bottom of the leaderboard both times.[104] He finished tied for 18th at the Quicken Loans National on August 2.[105] In late August 2015, Woods played quite well at the Wyndham Championship finishing the tournament at 13-under, only four strokes behind the winner, and tied for 10th place.[106] Woods offered only a brief comment on the speculation that he was still recovering from back surgery, saying it was "just my hip" but offering no specifics.[107] Woods practicing a chip-shot at the 2018 U.S. Open Woods had back surgery on September 16, 2015. In late March 2016, he announced that he would miss the Masters while he recovered from the surgery;[108] he had also missed the 2014 Masters due to a back problem.[109] "I'm absolutely making progress, and I'm really happy with how far I've come," he explained in a statement. "But I still have no timetable to return to competitive golf."[110] However, he did attend the Masters Champions Dinner on April 5, 2016.[111] For the first time in his career, he missed all four majors in one year due to problems with his back. In October 2016, he told Charlie Rose on PBS that he still wanted to break Jack Nicklaus's record of 18 major titles.[112] Woods underwent back surgery in December 2016 and spent the next 15 months off the Tour. He made his return to competitive golf in the Hero World Challenge.[113] Woods' back problems continued to hinder him in 2017. He missed the cut at the Farmers Insurance Open in January and pulled out of a European Tour event in Dubai on February 3. On March 31, Woods announced on his website that he would not be playing in the 2017 Masters Tournament despite being cleared to play by his doctors. Woods said that although he was happy with his rehabilitation, he did not feel "tournament ready."[114][115] Woods subsequently told friends, “I’m done”.[116] On April 20, Woods announced that he had undergone his fourth back surgery since 2014 to alleviate back and leg pain. Recovery time required up to six months, meaning that Woods would spend the rest of the year without playing any professional golf.[117] Woods returned to competitive golf at the Hero World Challenge in the Bahamas. He shot rounds of 69-68-75-68 and finished tied for 9th place. His world ranking went from 1,199th to 668th, which was the biggest jump in the world rankings in his career. On March 11, 2018, he finished one-shot back and tied for second at the Valspar Championship in Florida, his first top-five finish on the PGA Tour since 2013.[118] He then tied for sixth with a score of five under par at the 2018 Open Championship.[119] At the last major of the year Woods finished second at the 2018 PGA Championship, two shots behind the winner Brooks Koepka. It was his best result in a major since 2009 (second at the 2009 PGA Championship) and moved up to 26th in the world rankings. His final round of 64 was his best ever final round in a major.[120][10] Woods returned to the winner's circle for the 80th time in his PGA Tour career on September 23, 2018, when he won the season-ending Tour Championship at East Lake Golf Club for the second time and that tournament for the third time. He shot rounds of 65-68-65-71 to win by two strokes over Billy Horschel.[121] On April 14, 2019, Woods won the Masters, which was his first major championship win in eleven years and his 15th major overall. He finished 13 under par to win by one stroke over Dustin Johnson, Xander Schauffele and Brooks Koepka.[122] At age 43, he became the second oldest golfer ever to win the Masters, after Jack Nicklaus who was 46 when he triumphed in 1986.[123] Honors Woods checking his drive in 2007 Woods receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Donald Trump in May 2019 On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his wife Maria Shriver announced that Woods would be inducted into the California Hall of Fame. He was inducted December 5, 2007 at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts in Sacramento.[124] In December 2009, Woods was named "Athlete of the Decade" by the Associated Press.[125] He was named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year[126] a record-tying four times, and is one of only two people to be named Sports Illustrated's Sportsman of the Year more than once. Since his record-breaking win at the 1997 Masters, Woods has been the biggest name in golf and his presence in tournaments has drawn a huge fan following. Some sources have credited him for dramatically increasing prize money in golf, generating interest in new PGA tournament audiences, and for drawing the largest TV ratings in golf history.[59][127] In May 2019, following his 2019 Masters Tournament win, Woods was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Donald Trump.[128] Endorsements During the first decade of his professional career, Woods was the world's most marketable athlete.[129] Shortly after his 21st birthday in 1996, he signed endorsement deals with numerous companies, including General Motors, Titleist, General Mills, American Express, Accenture, and Nike, Inc. In 2000, he signed a 5-year, $105 million contract extension with Nike, which was the largest endorsement package signed by a professional athlete at that time.[130] Woods' endorsement has been credited with playing a significant role in taking the Nike Golf brand from a "start-up" golf company earlier in the previous decade to becoming the leading golf apparel company in the world and a major player in the equipment and golf ball market.[129][131] Nike Golf is one of the fastest growing brands in the sport, with an estimated $600 million in sales.[132] Woods has been described as the "ultimate endorser" for Nike Golf,[132] frequently seen wearing Nike gear during tournaments, and even in advertisements for other products.[130] Woods receives a percentage from the sales of Nike Golf apparel, footwear, golf equipment, golf balls,[129] and has a building named after him at Nike's headquarters campus in Beaverton, Oregon.[133] Woods visiting aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN-73) in the Persian Gulf before participating in the 2004 Dubai Desert Classic In 2002, Woods was involved in every aspect of the launch of Buick's Rendezvous SUV. A company spokesman stated that Buick was happy with the value of Woods' endorsement, pointing out that more than 130,000 Rendezvous vehicles were sold in 2002 and 2003. "That exceeded our forecasts," he was quoted as saying, "It has to be in recognition of Tiger." In February 2004, Buick renewed Woods' endorsement contract for another five years, in a deal reportedly worth $40 million.[130] Woods collaborated closely with TAG Heuer to develop the world's first professional golf watch, which was released in April 2005.[134] The lightweight, titanium-construction watch, designed to be worn while playing the game, incorporates numerous innovative design features to accommodate golf play. It is capable of absorbing up to 5,000 Gs of shock, far in excess of the forces generated by a normal golf swing.[134] In 2006, the TAG Heuer Professional Golf Watch won the prestigious iF product design award in the Leisure/Lifestyle category.[135] Woods preparing for a photo shoot in 2006 Woods also endorsed the Tiger Woods PGA Tour series of video games; he has done so since 1999.[136] In 2006, he signed a six-year contract with Electronic Arts, the series' publisher.[137] In February 2007, Woods, Roger Federer and Thierry Henry became ambassadors for the "Gillette Champions" marketing campaign. Gillette did not disclose financial terms, though an expert estimated the deal could total between $10 million and $20 million.[138] In October 2007, Gatorade announced that Woods would have his own brand of sports drink starting in March 2008. "Gatorade Tiger" was his first U.S. deal with a beverage company and his first licensing agreement. Although no figures were officially disclosed, Golfweek magazine reported that it was for five years and could pay him as much as $100 million.[139] The company decided in early fall 2009 to discontinue the drink due to weak sales.[140] In October 2012, it was announced that Woods had signed an exclusive endorsement deal with Fuse Science, Inc, a sports nutrition firm.[141] In 1997, Woods and fellow golfer Arnold Palmer initiated a civil case against Bruce Matthews (the owner of Gotta Have It Golf, Inc.) and others in the effort to stop the unauthorized sale of their images and alleged signatures in the memorabilia market. Matthews and associated parties counterclaimed that Woods and his company, ETW Corporation, committed several acts including breach of contract, breach of implied duty of good faith, and violations of Florida's Deceptive and Unfair Trade Practices Act.[142] Palmer also was named in the counter-suit, accused of violating the same licensing agreement in conjunction with his company Arnold Palmer Enterprises. On March 12, 2014, a Florida jury ruled in favor of Gotta Have It on its breach of contract and other related claims, rejected ETW's counterclaims, and awarded Gotta Have It $668,346 in damages.[143] The award may end up exceeding $1 million once interest has been factored in, though the ruling may be appealed. In August 2016, Woods announced that he would be seeking a new golf equipment partner[144] after the news of Nike's exit from the equipment industry.[145] It was announced on January 25, 2017, that he would be signing a new club deal with TaylorMade.[146] He added the 2016 M2 driver along with the 2017 M1 fairway woods, with irons to be custom made at a later date. He also added his Scotty Cameron Newport 2 GSS, a club he used to win 13 of his 15 majors.[147] Also, in late 2016, he would add Monster Energy as his primary bag sponsor, replacing MusclePharm.[148] Accumulated wealth Woods has appeared on Forbes' list of the world's highest-paid athletes.[149][150] According to Golf Digest, Woods made $769,440,709 from 1996 to 2007,[151] and the magazine predicted that Woods would pass a billion dollars in earnings by 2010.[152] In 2009, Forbes confirmed that Woods was indeed the world's first professional athlete to earn over a billion dollars in his career, after accounting for the $10 million bonus Woods received for the FedEx Cup title.[153] The same year, Forbes estimated his net worth to be $600 million, making him the second richest person of color in the United States, behind only Oprah Winfrey.[154] In 2015, Woods ranked ninth in Forbes' list of world's highest-paid athletes, being the top among Asian Americans or the fourth among African Americans.[155] As of 2017, Woods was considered to be the highest-paid golfer in the world.[156] Tiger-proofing Early in Woods' career, a small number of golf industry analysts expressed concern about his impact on the competitiveness of the game and the public appeal of professional golf. Sportswriter Bill Lyon of Knight Ridder asked in a column, "Isn't Tiger Woods actually bad for golf?" (though Lyon ultimately concluded that he was not).[157] At first, some pundits feared that Woods would drive the spirit of competition out of the game of golf by making existing courses obsolete and relegating opponents to simply competing for second place each week. A related effect was measured by University of California economist Jennifer Brown, who found that other golfers scored higher when competing against Woods than when he was not in the tournament. The scores of highly skilled (exempt) golfers are nearly one stroke higher when playing against Woods. This effect was larger when he was on winning streaks and disappeared during his well-publicized slump in 2003–04. Brown explains the results by noting that competitors of similar skill can hope to win by increasing their level of effort, but that, when facing a "superstar" competitor, extra exertion does not significantly raise one's level of winning while increasing risk of injury or exhaustion, leading to reduced effort.[158] Many courses in the PGA Tour rotation (including major championship sites like Augusta National) have added yardage to their tees in an effort to reduce the advantage of long hitters like Woods; this is a strategy that became known as "Tiger-Proofing". Woods said he welcomed the change, in that adding yardage to courses did not affect his ability to win.[159] Career achievements Main article: List of career achievements by Tiger Woods Woods has won 81 official PGA Tour events, including 15 majors. He is 14–1 when going into the final round of a major with at least a share of the lead. Multiple golf experts have heralded Woods as "the greatest closer in history".[160] He owns the lowest career scoring average and the most career earnings of any player in PGA Tour history. Woods' victory at the 2013 Players Championship also marked a win in his 300th PGA Tour start.[161] He also won golf tournaments in his 100th (in 2000) and 200th (in 2006) tour starts.[162] Woods has spent the most consecutive and cumulative weeks atop the world rankings. He is one of five players (along with Gene Sarazen, Ben Hogan, Gary Player, and Jack Nicklaus) to have won all four major championships in his career, known as the Career Grand Slam, and was the youngest to do so.[163] Woods is the only player to have won all four major championships in a row, accomplishing the feat in the 2000–2001 seasons. PGA Tour wins (81) European Tour wins (41) Japan Golf Tour wins (2) Asian Tour wins (1) PGA Tour of Australasia wins (1) Other professional wins (16) Amateur wins (21) Major championships Wins (15) Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner(s)-up 1997 Masters Tournament 9 shot lead −18 (70-66-65-69=270) 12 strokes United States Tom Kite 1999 PGA Championship Tied for lead −11 (70-67-68-72=277) 1 stroke Spain Sergio García 2000 U.S. Open 10 shot lead −12 (65-69-71-67=272) 15 strokes South Africa Ernie Els, Spain Miguel Ángel Jiménez 2000 The Open Championship 6 shot lead −19 (67-66-67-69=269) 8 strokes Denmark Thomas Bjørn, South Africa Ernie Els 2000 PGA Championship (2) 1 shot lead −18 (66-67-70-67=270) Playoff1 United States Bob May 2001 Masters Tournament (2) 1 shot lead −16 (70-66-68-68=272) 2 strokes United States David Duval 2002 Masters Tournament (3) Tied for lead −12 (70-69-66-71=276) 3 strokes South Africa Retief Goosen 2002 U.S. Open (2) 4 shot lead −3 (67-68-70-72=277) 3 strokes United States Phil Mickelson 2005 Masters Tournament (4) 3 shot lead −12 (74-66-65-71=276) Playoff2 United States Chris DiMarco 2005 The Open Championship (2) 2 shot lead −14 (66-67-71-70=274) 5 strokes Scotland Colin Montgomerie 2006 The Open Championship (3) 1 shot lead −18 (67-65-71-67=270) 2 strokes United States Chris DiMarco 2006 PGA Championship (3) Tied for lead −18 (69-68-65-68=270) 5 strokes United States Shaun Micheel 2007 PGA Championship (4) 3 shot lead −8 (71-63-69-69=272) 2 strokes United States Woody Austin 2008 U.S. Open (3) 1 shot lead −1 (72-68-70-73=283) Playoff3 United States Rocco Mediate 2019 Masters Tournament (5) 2 shot deficit −13 (70-68-67-70=275) 1 stroke United States Dustin Johnson, United States Brooks Koepka, United States Xander Schauffele 1Defeated May in three-hole playoff by 1 stroke: Woods (3-4-5=12), May (4-4-5=13) 2Defeated DiMarco in a sudden-death playoff: Woods (3) and DiMarco (4). 3Defeated Mediate with a par on 1st sudden death hole after 18-hole playoff was tied at even par. This was the final time an 18-hole playoff was used in competition. Results timeline Tournament 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Masters Tournament T41 LA CUT 1 T8 T18 U.S. Open WD T82 T19 T18 T3 The Open Championship T68 T22 LA T24 3 T7 PGA Championship T29 T10 1 Tournament 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Masters Tournament 5 1 1 T15 T22 1 T3 T2 2 T6 U.S. Open 1 T12 1 T20 T17 2 CUT T2 1 T6 The Open Championship 1 T25 T28 T4 T9 1 1 T12 CUT PGA Championship 1 T29 2 T39 T24 T4 1 1 2 Tournament 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Masters Tournament T4 T4 T40 T4 T17 T32 U.S. Open T4 T21 T32 CUT CUT The Open Championship T23 T3 T6 69 CUT T6 PGA Championship T28 CUT T11 T40 CUT CUT 2 Tournament 2019 Masters Tournament 1 PGA Championship CUT U.S. Open T21 The Open Championship CUT Win Top 10 Did not play LA = Low amateur CUT = missed the half-way cut WD = withdrew "T" indicates a tie for a place Summary Tournament Wins 2nd 3rd Top-5 Top-10 Top-25 Events Cuts made Masters Tournament 5 2 1 12 14 18 22 21 PGA Championship 4 3 0 8 9 11 20 16 U.S. Open 3 2 1 7 8 15 21 17 The Open Championship 3 0 2 6 10 15 21 18 Totals 15 7 4 33 41 59 84 72 Most consecutive cuts made – 39 (1996 U.S. Open – 2006 Masters) Longest streak of top-10s – 8 (1999 U.S. Open – 2001 Masters) World Golf Championships Wins (18) Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner(s)-up 1999 WGC-NEC Invitational 5 shot lead −10 (66-71-62-71=270) 1 stroke United States Phil Mickelson 1999 WGC-American Express Championship 1 shot deficit –6 (71-69-70-68=278) Playoff 1 Spain Miguel Ángel Jiménez 2000 WGC-NEC Invitational (2) 9 shot lead −21 (64-61-67-67=259) 11 strokes United States Justin Leonard, Wales Phillip Price 2001 WGC-NEC Invitational (3) 2 shot deficit −12 (66-67-66-69=268) Playoff 2 United States Jim Furyk 2002 WGC-American Express Championship (2) 5 shot lead −25 (65-65-67-66=263) 1 stroke South Africa Retief Goosen 2003 WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship n/a 2 & 1 n/a United States David Toms 2003 WGC-American Express Championship (3) 2 shot lead −6 (67-66-69-72=274) 2 strokes Australia Stuart Appleby, United States Tim Herron, Fiji Vijay Singh 2004 WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship (2) n/a 3 & 2 n/a United States Davis Love III 2005 WGC-NEC Invitational (4) Tied for lead −6 (66-70-67-71=274) 1 stroke United States Chris DiMarco 2005 WGC-American Express Championship (4) 2 shot deficit −10 (67-68-68-67=270) Playoff 3 United States John Daly 2006 WGC-Bridgestone Invitational (5) 1 shot deficit −10 (67-64-71-68=270) Playoff 4 United States Stewart Cink 2006 WGC-American Express Championship (5) 6 shot lead −23 (63-64-67-67=261) 8 strokes England Ian Poulter, Australia Adam Scott 2007 WGC-CA Championship (6) 4 shot lead −10 (71-66-68-73=278) 2 strokes United States Brett Wetterich 2007 WGC-Bridgestone Invitational (6) 1 shot deficit −8 (68-70-69-65=272) 8 strokes England Justin Rose, South Africa Rory Sabbatini 2008 WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship (3) n/a 8 & 7 n/a United States Stewart Cink 2009 WGC-Bridgestone Invitational (7) 3 shot deficit −12 (68-70-65-65=268) 4 strokes Australia Robert Allenby, Republic of Ireland Pádraig Harrington 2013 WGC-Cadillac Championship (7) 4 shot lead −19 (66-65-67-71=269) 2 strokes United States Steve Stricker 2013 WGC-Bridgestone Invitational (8) 7 shot lead −15 (66-61-68-70=265) 7 strokes United States Keegan Bradley, Sweden Henrik Stenson 1 Won on the first hole of a sudden-death playoff 2 Won on the seventh hole of a sudden-death playoff 3 Won on the second hole of a sudden-death playoff 4 Won on the fourth hole of a sudden-death playoff Results timeline Tournament 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Championship 1 T5 NT1 1 1 9 1 1 1 5 T9 T10 WD 1 T25 T10 Match Play QF 2 R64 1 1 R32 R16 R16 1 R32 R64 R32 R64 QF Invitational 1 1 1 4 T4 T2 1 1 1 1 T78 T37 T8 1 WD T31 Champions T6 T6 Win Top 10 Did not play QF, R16, R32, R64 = Round in which player lost in match play WD = withdrew NT = No tournament 1 Canceled following the September 11 attacks. "T" = tied Note that the HSBC Champions did not become a WGC event until 2009. PGA Tour career summary Season Starts Cuts made Wins (majors) 2nd 3rd Top 10 Top 25 Earnings ($) Money list rank 1992 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1993 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1994 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1995 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 – – 1996 11 10 2 0 2 5 8 790,594 24 1997 21 20 4 (1) 1 1 9 14 2,066,833 1 1998 20 19 1 2 2 13 17 1,841,117 4 1999 21 21 8 (1) 1 2 16 18 6,616,585 1 2000 20 20 9 (3) 4 1 17 20 9,188,321 1 2001 19 19 5 (1) 0 1 9 18 5,687,777 1 2002 18 18 5 (2) 2 2 13 16 6,912,625 1 2003 18 18 5 2 0 12 16 6,673,413 2 2004 19 19 1 3 3 14 18 5,365,472 4 2005 21 19 6 (2) 4 2 13 17 10,628,024 1 2006 15 14 8 (2) 1 1 11 13 9,941,563 1 2007 16 16 7 (1) 3 0 12 15 10,867,052 1 2008 6 6 4 (1) 1 0 6 6 5,775,000 2 2009 17 16 6 3 0 14 16 10,508,163 1 2010 12 11 0 0 0 2 7 1,294,765 68 2011 9 7 0 0 0 2 3 660,238 128 2012 19 17 3 1 2 9 13 6,133,158 2 2013 16 16 5 1 0 8 10 8,553,439 1 2014 7 5 0 0 0 0 1 108,275 201 2015 11 6 0 0 0 1 3 448,598 162 2016 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 n/a 2017 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 n/a 2018 18 16 1 2 0 7 12 5,443,841 7 2019* 8 7 1(1) 0 0 4 6 3,041,317 14 Career* 354 323 81 (15) 31 19 197 267 118,546,170 1[164] *As of June 2, 2019 Guinness Book of Records Woods claimed 17 Guinness World Records, within golf and 3 other records related to his appearance in the video game. After Usain Bolt and Michael Phelps, he holds the third highest number of Guinness World Records claimed by a sportsman within one discipline.[165] Most consecutive US Amateur golf titles Most US PGA Tour tournament wins in the modern era Lowest score under par in the Open golf championships Most awards for Professional Golfers' Association Tour Player of the Year Youngest winner of the golf US Masters Highest career earnings on the US Professional Golfers' Association Tour Largest margin of victory in the golf US Masters Largest margin of victory in a golf major championships Most wins of the PGA Player of the Year award Most consecutive golf Major tournaments won Highest annual earnings for a golfer Longest golf drive on the PGA Tour Lowest total score (72 holes) at the golf US Masters Longest drive in Tiger Woods PGA Tour 06 Golf, World Cup – Lowest individual score Lowest total score (first 54 holes) in the golf US Masters Highest annual earnings for an athlete (ever) Playing style Woods practicing before 2004 Ryder Cup at Oakland Hills Country Club in Bloomfield Township, Michigan When Woods first joined the PGA Tour in 1996, his long drives had a large impact on the world of golf,[166] but he did not upgrade his equipment in the following years. He insisted upon the use of True Temper Dynamic Gold steel-shafted clubs and smaller steel clubheads that promoted accuracy over distance.[167] Many opponents caught up to him, and Phil Mickelson even made a joke in 2003 about Woods using "inferior equipment", which did not sit well with Nike, Titleist or Woods.[168] During 2004, Woods finally upgraded his driver technology to a larger clubhead and graphite shaft, which, coupled with his clubhead speed, again made him one of the tour's longest players off the tee. Despite his power advantage, Woods has always focused on developing an excellent all-around game. Although in recent years[when?] he has typically been near the bottom of the Tour rankings in driving accuracy, his iron play is generally accurate, his recovery and bunker play is very strong, and his putting (especially under pressure) is possibly his greatest asset. He is largely responsible for a shift to higher standards of athleticism amongst professional golfers, and is known for utilizing more hours of practice than most.[169][170][171] From mid-1993 (while he was still an amateur) until 2004, Woods worked almost exclusively with leading swing coach Butch Harmon. From mid-1997, Harmon and Woods fashioned a major redevelopment of Woods' full swing, achieving greater consistency, better distance control, and better kinesiology. The changes began to pay off in 1999.[172] Woods and Harmon eventually parted ways. From March 2004 to 2010, Woods was coached by Hank Haney, who worked on flattening his swing plane. Woods continued to win tournaments with Haney, but his driving accuracy dropped significantly. Haney resigned under questionable circumstances in May 2010[173] and was replaced by Sean Foley.[174] Fluff Cowan served as Woods' caddie from the start of his professional career until Woods dismissed him in March 1999.[175] He was replaced by Steve Williams, who became a close friend of Woods and is often credited with helping him with key shots and putts.[176] In June 2011, Woods dismissed Williams after he caddied for Adam Scott in the U.S. Open[177] and replaced him with friend Bryon Bell on an interim basis. Joe LaCava, a former caddie of both Fred Couples and Dustin Johnson, was hired by Woods shortly after[178] and has remained Woods' caddie since then. Equipment As of 2019 WGC Dell Technologies Match Play:[179] Driver: TaylorMade M5 (Mitsubishi Chemical Diamana D+ White Board 73TX shaft), 9 degrees Fairway woods: TaylorMade M5 13 & M3 19 Degree (Mitsubishi Chemical Diamana D+ White Board 83TX shaft) Irons: TaylorMade TW Phase1 Prototype (3-PW; True Temper Dynamic Gold Tour Issue X100 shafts) Wedges: TaylorMade Milled Grind (56 and 60 degrees; True Temper Dynamic Gold Tour Issue S400 shafts) Putter: Scotty Cameron Newport 2 GSS with Ping Blackout PP58 Grip Ball: Bridgestone Tour B XS (with "Tiger" imprint) Golf glove: Nike Dri-FIT Tour glove Golf shoes: Nike TW '17[180] Driver club cover: Frank, a plush tiger head club cover created by his mother. Frank has appeared in several commercials (voiced by actor Paul Giamatti)[181][182] Wood covers: Stitch Brand with TGR Logo. Putter cover: Nike Putter Cover.[183] Other ventures TGR Foundation The TGR Foundation was established in 1996 by Woods and his father Earl as the Tiger Woods Foundation, with the primary goal of promoting golf among inner-city children.[184] The foundation has conducted junior golf clinics across the country, and sponsors the Tiger Woods Foundation National Junior Golf Team in the Junior World Golf Championships.[185][186] As of December 2010, TWF employed approximately 55 people.[187][188] The foundation operates the Tiger Woods Learning Center, a $50-million, 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) facility in Anaheim, California, providing college-access programs for underserved youth.[185][187][189] The TWLC opened in 2006 and features seven classrooms, extensive multi-media facilities and an outdoor golf teaching area.[185] The center has since expanded to four additional campuses: two in Washington, D.C.; one in Philadelphia; and one in Stuart, Florida.[189] Woods giving a speech at We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial (January 2009) The foundation benefits from the annual Chevron World Challenge and AT&T National golf tournaments hosted by Woods.[187] In October 2011, the foundation hosted the first Tiger Woods Invitational at Pebble Beach.[190] Other annual fundraisers have included the concert events Block Party, last held in 2009 in Anaheim, and Tiger Jam, last held in 2011 in Las Vegas after a one-year hiatus.[187][191] Tiger Woods Design In November 2006, Woods announced his intention to begin designing golf courses around the world through a new company, Tiger Woods Design.[192] A month later, he announced that the company's first course would be in Dubai as part of a 25.3-million-square-foot development, The Tiger Woods Dubai.[193] The Al Ruwaya Golf Course was initially expected to finish construction in 2009.[193] As of February 2010, only seven holes had been completed; in April 2011, The New York Times reported that the project had been shelved permanently.[194][195] In 2013, the partnership between Tiger Woods Design and Dubai Holding was dissolved.[196] Tiger Woods Design has taken on two other courses, neither of which has materialized. In August 2007, Woods announced The Cliffs at High Carolina, a private course in the Blue Ridge Mountains near Asheville, North Carolina.[197] After a groundbreaking in November 2008, the project suffered cash flow problems and suspended construction.[195] A third course, in Punta Brava, Mexico, was announced in October 2008, but incurred delays due to issues with permits and an environmental impact study.[195][198] Construction on the Punta Brava course has not yet begun.[195] These projects have encountered problems that have been attributed to factors that include overly optimistic estimates of their value, declines throughout the global economy (particularly the U.S. crash in home prices), and the decreased appeal and marketability of Woods following his 2009 infidelity scandal.[195] Writings Woods wrote a golf instruction column for Golf Digest magazine from 1997 to February 2011.[199] In 2001 he wrote a best-selling golf instruction book, How I Play Golf, which had the largest print run of any golf book for its first edition, 1.5 million copies.[200] In March 2017, he published a memoir, The 1997 Masters: My Story, co-authored by Lorne Rubenstein, which focuses on his first Masters win.[201] Personal life Woods after receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2019. From left to right: girlfriend Erica Herman, mother Kultida Woods, daughter Sam Woods, son Charlie Woods and Tiger Woods Marriage and children In November 2003, Woods became engaged to Elin Nordegren, a Swedish former model and daughter of former minister of migration Barbro Holmberg and radio journalist Thomas Nordegren.[202] They were introduced during The Open Championship in 2001 by Swedish golfer Jesper Parnevik, who had employed her as an au pair. They married on October 5, 2004, at the Sandy Lane resort in Barbados, and lived at Isleworth, a community in Windermere, a suburb of Orlando, Florida.[203][204] In 2006, they purchased a $39-million estate in Jupiter Island, Florida, and began constructing a 10,000-square-foot home; Woods moved there in 2010 following the couple's divorce.[149][204] Woods and Nordegren's first child was a girl born in 2007, whom they named Sam Alexis Woods. Woods chose the name because his own father had always called him Sam.[205] Their son, Charlie Axel Woods, was born in 2009.[206] Infidelity scandal and fallout In November 2009, the National Enquirer published a story claiming that Woods had had an extramarital affair with New York City nightclub manager Rachel Uchitel, who denied the claim.[207][208] Two days later, around 2:30 a.m. on November 27, Woods was driving from his Florida mansion in his Cadillac Escalade SUV when he collided with a fire hydrant, a tree, and several hedges near his home.[209] He was treated for minor facial lacerations and received a ticket for careless driving.[209][210] Following intense media speculation about the cause of the accident, Woods released a statement on his website and took sole responsibility for the accident, calling it a "private matter" and crediting his wife for helping him from the car.[211] On November 30, Woods announced that he would not be appearing at his own charity golf tournament, the Chevron World Challenge, nor any other tournaments in 2009, due to his injuries.[212] On December 2, following Us Weekly's previous day reporting of a purported mistress and subsequent release of a voicemail message allegedly left by Woods for the woman,[213] Woods released a further statement. He admitted transgressions and apologized to "all of those who have supported [him] over the years", while reiterating his and his family's right to privacy.[208][214] Over the next few days, more than a dozen women claimed in various media outlets to have had affairs with Woods.[5] On December 11, he released a third statement admitting to infidelity and he apologized again. He also announced that he would be taking "an indefinite break from professional golf."[5] In the days and months following Woods' admission of multiple infidelities, several companies re-evaluated their relationships with him. Accenture, AT&T, Gatorade and General Motors completely ended their sponsorship deals, while Gillette suspended advertising featuring Woods.[83][215] TAG Heuer dropped Woods from advertising in December 2009 and officially ended their deal when his contract expired in August 2011.[83] Golf Digest suspended Woods's monthly column beginning with the February 2010 issue.[216] In contrast, Nike continued to support Woods, as did Electronic Arts, which was working with Woods on the game Tiger Woods PGA Tour Online.[217] A December 2009 study estimated the shareholder loss caused by Woods's affairs to be between $5 billion and $12 billion.[218] On February 19, 2010, Woods gave a televised statement in which he said he had undertaken a 45-day therapy program that began at the end of December. He again apologized for his actions. "I thought I could get away with whatever I wanted to," he said. "I felt that I had worked hard my entire life and deserved to enjoy all the temptations around me. I felt I was entitled. Thanks to money and fame, I didn't have to go far to find them. I was wrong. I was foolish." He said he did not know yet when he would be returning to golf.[82][219] On March 16, he announced that he would play in the 2010 Masters.[220] After seven years of marriage, Woods and Elin divorced on August 23, 2010.[221] 2017 arrest On May 29, 2017, Woods was arrested near his Jupiter Island, Florida, home by the Jupiter Police Department at about 3:00 am. EDT for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. He was asleep in his car, which was stationary in a traffic lane with its engine running. He later stated that he had taken prescription drugs and did not realize how they might interact together.[222] On July 3, 2017, Woods tweeted that he had completed an out-of-state intensive program to tackle an unspecified issue.[223] At his August 9, 2017 arraignment, Woods had his attorney Douglas Duncan submit a not guilty plea for him and agreed to take part in a first-time DUI offender program and attend another arraignment on October 25.[224][225] At a hearing on October 27, 2017, Woods pleaded guilty to reckless driving. He received a year of probation, was fined $250, and ordered to undergo 50 hours of community service along with regular drug tests. He was not allowed to drink alcohol during the probation, and if he violated the probation he would be sentenced to 90 days in jail with an additional $500 fine.[226] Other pursuits United States President Barack Obama and Woods meet in the Oval Office, April 2009 Woods fires a handgun at a shooting range outside San Diego. Woods was raised as a Buddhist, and he actively practiced his faith from childhood until well into his adult, professional golf career.[227] In a 2000 article, Woods was quoted as saying that he "believes in Buddhism... not every aspect, but most of it."[228] He has attributed his deviations and infidelity to his losing track of Buddhism. He said, "Buddhism teaches me to stop following every impulse and to learn restraint. Obviously I lost track of what I was taught."[229] Woods is registered as an independent voter.[230] In January 2009, Woods delivered a speech commemorating the military at the We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial.[231] In April 2009, Woods visited the White House while promoting the golf tournament he hosts, the AT&T National.[232] In December 2016 and again in November 2017, Woods played golf with President Donald Trump at the Trump International Golf Club in West Palm Beach.[233] On March 18, 2013, Woods announced that he and Olympic gold medal skier Lindsey Vonn were dating.[234] They split up in May 2015.[235] From November 2016 to August 2017, Woods was in a relationship with stylist Kristin Smith.[236][237] Woods announced in November 2017 that he was in a relationship with restaurant manager Erica Herman, following speculation about their relationship that began the month prior.[237] See also Career Grand Slam Champions List of golfers with most European Tour wins List of golfers with most PGA Tour wins List of golfers with most wins in one PGA Tour event List of longest PGA Tour win streaks List of men's major championships winning golfers List of World Number One male golfers Most PGA Tour wins in a year P vip.svgBiography portalGolf ball.jpgGolf portalFlag of the United States.svgUnited States portal Notes These are the 15 majors, 18 WGC events, and his eight tour wins. References "Tiger Woods – Profile". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 7, 2015. This is calculated by adding Woods' 81 PGA Tour victories, 8 regular European Tour titles, 2 Japan Tour wins, 1 Asian Tour crown, and the 16 other wins in his career. 2009 European Tour Official Guide Section 4 Page 577 PDF 21. European Tour. Retrieved April 21, 2009. Archived January 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine "Who is the greatest golfer ever: Tiger or Jack?". For The Win. April 13, 2018. Retrieved July 19, 2018. Diaz, Jaime. "What made Tiger Woods great—and can again – Golf Digest". Golf Digest. Retrieved July 19, 2018. "Phil: Tiger in prime played best golf ever". ESPN.com. Retrieved July 19, 2018. Dahlberg, Tim (December 12, 2009). "Two weeks that shattered the legend of Tiger Woods". Fox News. Associated Press. Retrieved January 23, 2012. "Westwood becomes world number one". BBC News. October 31, 2010. "Tiger Woods moves to 50th in rankings". ESPN. November 13, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011. "Complete list of Tiger Woods' injuries". PGA Tour. "With game on point, Tiger Woods is in perfect place to win again at Firestone". USA Today. August 1, 2018. Reid, Philip (August 14, 2018). "For the new Tiger Woods, second place is far from first loser". The Irish Times. Dublin. Kelley, Brent (October 20, 2009). "Woods Clinches PGA Player of the Year Award". About.com: Golf. Retrieved December 2, 2009. "Tracking Tiger". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 3, 2009. Rogers, Katie (May 6, 2019). "'I've Battled,' Tiger Woods Says as He Accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2019. "Tiger Woods Biography – childhood, children, parents, name, history, mother, young, son, old, information, born". Notablebiographies.com. Retrieved December 16, 2017. "Tiger Woods' father, Earl, succumbs to cancer". Espn.com. May 5, 2006. Retrieved December 16, 2017. Kelley, Brent. "Tiger Woods' Parents: Meet Mom and Dad". Thoughtco.com. Retrieved December 16, 2017. His Father's Son: Earl and Tiger Woods, by Tom Callahan, 2010; The Wicked Game, by Howard Sounes, 2004 "Earning His Stripes". AsianWeek. October 11, 1996. Archived from the original on January 16, 1998. Retrieved June 18, 2009. Younge, Gary (May 28, 2010). "Tiger Woods: Black, white, other | racial politics". The Guardian. Retrieved May 12, 2019. "Earl Woods" (obituary). Daily Telegraph (June 5, 2006). Retrieved June 19, 2012. "Woods stars on Oprah, says he's 'Cablinasian'". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Associated Press. April 23, 1997. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2009. Callahan, Tom (May 9, 2006). "Tiger's dad gave us all some lessons to remember". Golf Digest. Retrieved January 24, 2012. Chandler, Rick (June 7, 2012). "Tiger Woods' niece makes her major pro golf tourney debut today". Off the Bench. NBC Sports. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2012. Training a Tiger: Raising a Winner in Golf and in Life, by Earl Woods and Pete McDaniel, 1997. "Play Golf Where Tiger Became Tiger". Golf.com. "Tiger Woods Timeline". Infoplease. Retrieved May 12, 2007.[unreliable source?] Training A Tiger, by Earl Woods and Pete McDaniel, 1997, p. 64. "1984 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf, by Howard Sounes, 2004, William Morrow, New York, ISBN 0-06-051386-1, p. 187; originally appeared in The Wall Street Journal, Nike's Tiger Woods professional career launch advertisement, August 1996. "1985 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "1988 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "1989 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "1990 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "1991 Champions". Junior World Golf Championships. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Training A Tiger: A Father's Guide to Raising a Winner in Both Golf and Life, by Earl Woods with Pete McDaniel, 1997, Harper Collins, New York, ISBN 0-06-270178-9, p. 23; The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf, by Howard Sounes. His Father's Son: Earl and Tiger Woods, by Tom Callahan, 2010 Training A Tiger: A Father's Guide to Raising a Winner in Both Golf and Life, by Earl Woods with Pete McDaniel, 1997, Harper Collins, New York, ISBN 0-06-270178-9, p. 180. Jack Nicklaus: Memories and Mementos from Golf's Golden Bear, by Jack Nicklaus with David Shedloski, 2007, Stewart, Tabori & Chang, New York, ISBN 1-58479-564-6, p. 130. "1991 U.S. Junior Amateur". U.S. Junior Amateur. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "1992 U.S. Junior Amateur". U.S. Junior Amateur. Retrieved May 12, 2007. "Tiger Woods". IMG Speakers. Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2009. "1993 U.S. Junior Amateur". U.S. Junior Amateur. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Sounes, p. 277. "Notable Past Players". International Golf Federation. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Thomsen, Ian (September 9, 1995). "Ailing Woods Unsure for Walker Cup". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved January 4, 2011. The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf, by Howard Sounes, 2004, William Morrow, New York, ISBN 0-06-051386-1, information listed on inset photos between pages 168 and 169. "Famous People – Speech Differences and Stutter". Disabled World. Retrieved May 24, 2015. "Tiger Woods writes letter of support to fellow stutterer". The Guardian. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015. Sirak, Ron (May 12, 2015). "Former stutterer Tiger Woods writes letter to young boy being bullied". Golf Digest. Retrieved May 24, 2015. "Tiger Woods Writes Letter to Boy With Stuttering Problem". ABC News. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 24, 2015. "Stanford Men's Golf Team – Tiger Woods". Stanford Men's Golf Team. April 8, 2003. Retrieved July 19, 2009. Rosaforte, Tim (1997). Tiger Woods: The Makings of a Champion. St. Martin's Press. pp. 84, 101. ISBN 0-312-96437-4. "PAC-10 Men's Golf" (PDF). PAC-10 Conference. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "Tiger Woods through the Ages..." Geocities. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Sounes, p. 277 "Tiger Woods Captures 1996 NCAA Individual Title". Stanford University. Archived from the original on October 29, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Rosaforte 1997, p. 160. Wood, Robert W. (January 23, 2013). "Tiger Woods Moved Too, Says Mickelson Was Right About Taxes". Forbes. Retrieved January 26, 2013. Sirak, Ron. "10 Years of Tiger Woods Part 1". Golf Digest. Retrieved May 21, 2007. Sirak, Ron. "Golf's first Billion-Dollar Man". Golf Digest. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Reilly, Rick (December 23, 1996). "1996: Tiger Woods". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Sirak, Ron. "10 Years of Tiger Woods Part 2". Golf Digest. Retrieved May 21, 2007. "Woods scoops world rankings award". BBC Sport. London. March 15, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Diaz, Jaime. "The Truth about Tiger". Golf Digest. Archived from the original on April 15, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2007. "Woods is PGA Tour player of year". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 3, 2010. Retrieved May 10, 2009. "Tiger Woods undergoes second laser eye surgery". Golf Today. May 15, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2012. Bestrom, Craig; Strege, John. "Eyes of the Tiger: Tiger Woods – LASIK laser eye surgery". Eyesurgeryusa.com. Retrieved June 19, 2012. "Woods has second laser eye surgery". Golf Magazine. May 15, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2012. Garrity, John (June 26, 2000). "Open and Shut". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved August 15, 2007. Sirak, Ron. "10 Years of Tiger Woods Part 3". Golf Digest. Retrieved May 21, 2007. Price, S.L. (April 3, 2000). "Tunnel Vision". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Yocom, Guy (July 2000). "50 Greatest Golfers of All Time: And What They Taught Us". Golf Digest. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007. "The remarkable drive of Tiger Woods". CNN. Retrieved March 27, 2012. Shedloski, Dave (July 27, 2006). "Woods is starting to own his swing". PGA Tour. Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2007. "Hard labor pays off for Singh". Sports Illustrated. Reuters. September 7, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2009. Verdi, Bob. "A Rivalry is Reborn". Golf World. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007. Morfit, Cameron (March 6, 2006). "Tiger Woods's Rivals Will Be Back. Eventually". Golf Magazine. Archived from the original on September 19, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2009. Hack, Damon (April 10, 2006). "Golf: Notebook; Trouble on Greens Keeps Woods From His Fifth Green Jacket". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2009. Litsky, Frank (May 4, 2006). "Earl Woods, 74, Father of Tiger Woods, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2009. "Man of the Year". PGA. Associated Press. Retrieved June 18, 2009. "Tiger Woods undergoes knee surgery". Agence France-Presse. April 15, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008. "Tiger puts away Mediate on 91st hole to win U.S. Open". ESPN. Associated Press. June 16, 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2008. Savage, Brendan (June 25, 2008). "Rocco Mediate still riding U.S. Open high into Buick Open". The Flint Journal. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2009. Lage, Larry (June 26, 2008). "Mediate makes the most of his brush with Tiger". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved June 19, 2009. Steinberg, Mark (June 18, 2008). "Tiger Woods to Undergo Reconstructive Knee Surgery and Miss Remainder of 2008 Season". TigerWoods.com. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008. Dorman, Larry (June 19, 2008). "Woods to Have Knee Surgery, Ending His Season". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2009. Donegan, Lawrence (June 17, 2008). "Woods savours 'greatest triumph' after epic duel with brave Mediate". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved June 30, 2008. "Tiger's Return Expected To Make PGA Ratings Roar". The Nielsen Company 2009. February 25, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2009. Dahlberg, Tim (March 1, 2009). "Anything can happen: It did in Tiger's return". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 1, 2009. Ferguson, Doug (October 12, 2009). "Americans win the Presidents Cup". Cumberland Times-News. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2009. Barber, Phil (October 11, 2009). "Americans win the Presidents Cup". The Press Democrat. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2009. "Tiger Woods apologises to wife Elin for affairs". BBC Sport. London. February 19, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2010. "AT&T cuts connection with Woods". ESPN. Associated Press. January 1, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2012. "Mickelson wins Masters; Tiger 5 back". ESPN. April 11, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2010. Harig, Bob (May 1, 2010). "Woods misses sixth PGA Tour cut". ESPN. Retrieved May 1, 2010. pgatour.com, Official World Golf Ranking for March 27, 2011 pgatour.com, Official World Golf Ranking for April 11, 2011< pgatour.com, 2011 Masters tournament data http://www.tigerwoods.com, June 7, 2011 Howard Sounes: The Wicked Game pgatour.com, December 4, 2011, Tiger ends two-year winless streak Evans, Farrell (February 24, 2012). "Nick Watney eliminates Tiger Woods". ESPN. Retrieved February 24, 2012. "Tiger wins Memorial to match Nicklaus on 73 wins". The Times of India. June 4, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2012. "Tiger Woods wins AT&T to pass Jack Nicklaus record". BBC Sport. July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012. Evans, Farrell (January 29, 2013). "Tiger takes Torrey for 75th tour win". ESPN. Retrieved March 20, 2013. "Tiger Woods prevails at Doral". ESPN. Associated Press. March 10, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013. "Tiger returns to No. 1, wins Bay Hill". ESPN. Associated Press. March 25, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2013. Boren, Cindy (March 27, 2013). "Tiger Woods Nike ad causes a stir with "winning takes care of everything" message". The Washington Post. "Is Tiger Woods facing disqualification at Masters?". CBS Sports. Retrieved April 13, 2013. "Tiger Woods walks off at Honda Classic". bunkered. March 3, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014. "Tiger Woods a doubt for the Masters". bunkered. March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014. "Tiger Woods out of the Masters". bunkered. April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014. "Tiger Woods splits with swing coach Sean Foley". USA Today. August 25, 2014. Van Sickle, Gary (February 5, 2015). "Tiger Withdraws From the Farmers Insurance Open With Bad Back". Golf.com. "His back feeling better, Tiger plans to work on his game and play again soon". tigerwoods.com. February 11, 2015. Schwartz, Nick (April 12, 2015). "Tiger Woods hurts his wrist after hitting a root at the Masters". USA Today. Porter, Kyle (June 19, 2015). "Tiger Woods improves with 76, but misses cut badly at 2015 US Open". CBS Sports. Porter, Kyle (July 18, 2015). "2015 British Open: Tiger Woods cut at consecutive majors for first time". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Harig, Bob (August 2, 2015). "Tiger confident after results at Quicken Loans National". ESPN. Retrieved August 13, 2015. Velin, Bob (August 24, 2015). "Tiger Woods falls short, ends season at Wyndham". USA Today. Tyson's Corners, Virginia. Retrieved April 6, 2015. Kalland, Bobby (August 23, 2015). "Tiger Woods sputters in final round, shoots 70 at Wyndham Championship". CBS Sports. Retrieved April 6, 2016. "Tiger Undergoes Successful Back Surgery, Is Hopeful To Return in Early 2016". TigerWoods.com. September 18, 2015. Retrieved April 6, 2015. Grez, Matias (April 2, 2016). "Tiger Woods: Golfer to miss the Masters". CNN International. Retrieved April 6, 2016. Harig, Bob (April 2, 2016). "Tiger Woods chooses health over Masters". ABC News. Retrieved April 5, 2016. Brennan, Christine (April 5, 2016). "Brennan: Tiger Woods isn't playing in Masters but still very much present". USA Today. Retrieved April 5, 2016. "Tiger Wood's bold vision to break Jack Nicklaus's record of 18 major titles". Golf Channel. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2016. "Tiger Woods looks to the positives after fading following flying start". Irish Independent. Press Association. December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016. Harig, Bob (April 1, 2017). "Tiger Woods to miss Masters for third time in four years". ESPN. Retrieved April 14, 2017. "Tiger not 'tournament ready,' will miss Masters". www.tigerwoods.com. March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017. "US briefing: Tiger Woods' amazing comeback, Ilhan Omar and Mayor Pete" --The Guardian Zak, Sean (April 20, 2017). "Breaking: Tiger Woods undergoes back surgery to alleviate ongoing pain". Golf Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2017. "Tiger Woods has a 4th back surgery". MSN News. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017. Crouse, Karen (March 11, 2018). "He Stuck to Golf: Tiger Woods, Roaring Back, Ties for 2nd". The New York Times. Murray, Scott (July 22, 2018). "The Open 2018: Francesco Molinari wins title on day of drama – as it happened". The Guardian. Jurejko, Jonathan (August 13, 2018). "US PGA Championship: Brooks Koepka holds off Tiger Woods to win at Bellerive". BBC Sport. McGowan, Tom; Sinnott, John (September 24, 2018). "Tiger Woods wins a PGA Tour event for the first time since 2013". CNN. "Masters 2019: Tiger Woods wins 15th major with thrilling Augusta victory". BBC Sport. April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019. Crouse, Karen (April 14, 2019). "In a Stirring Return to the Top, Tiger Woods Captures the Masters at 43". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2019. "Apple CEO among latest inductees to California Hall of Fame". U-T San Diego. August 20, 2007. Archived from the original on August 29, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2009. "California Hall of Fame: 2007 Inductees" Archived January 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, californiamuseum.org. Retrieved September 11, 2007. "Woods named top athlete of decade". ESPN. December 17, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010. "Tiger named AP's Athlete of the Decade". NY Daily News. Associated Press. December 16, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2017. Slezak, Carol (April 1, 2007). "Tiger's Tour, 10 years after his Masters breakthrough". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2009. Reilly, Rick; Garrity, John; Diaz, Jaime (April 1, 1997). "Tiger 1997: The buzz that rocked the cradle". Golf Magazine. Retrieved March 30, 2009. "With Tiger not a factor, preliminary ratings down for PGA". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. August 20, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2009. Ziemer, Tom (April 8, 2005). "PGA jungle needs its Tiger on prowl". The Badger Herald. Retrieved March 30, 2009. Whitmer, Michael (April 2, 2009). "Woods shows mettle again". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 11, 2009. "Medal of Freedom awarded to 'true legend' Tiger". ESPn. May 7, 2018. Berger, Brian., "Nike Golf Extends Contract with Tiger Woods", Sports Business Radio, December 11, 2006. Retrieved September 14, 2007. DiCarlo, Lisa (March 18, 2004). "Six Degrees of Tiger Woods". Forbes. Retrieved December 17, 2009. " Branding and Celebrity Endorsements" Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, VentureRepublic.com. Retrieved September 14, 2007. Park, Alice., "Member of the Club", Time, April 12, 2007. Retrieved September 12, 2007. AP, "Nike sees dollar signs in Woods' magical shot", MSNBC, April 13, 2005. Retrieved September 14, 2007. Krakow, Gary., "Tiger Woods watch is a technological stroke", MSNBC.com, November 7, 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007. Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine "Tag Heuer's Innovative Creation Wins Prestigious Award" Archived September 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, best-watch.net Watch News, January 31, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2007. Woods, Tiger; Rothman, Wilson (September 26, 2004). "Q&A with Tiger Woods". Time. Retrieved July 8, 2009. Surette, Tim (February 2, 2006). "Tiger Woods to play another six with EA". GameSpot. Retrieved July 8, 2009. Abelson, Jenn (February 5, 2007). "Gillette lands a trio of star endorsers". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 17, 2007. "Gatorade Unveils a Taste of Tiger". The Washington Post. October 17, 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2009. "Gatorade confirms it is dropping Tiger Woods drink, but decided to before fateful car wreck". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. December 9, 2009. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2009. "Sports nutrition firm Fuse Science signs on as sponsor of Woods' bag". PGA of America. Associated Press. Retrieved October 25, 2012. "Palmer v. Gotta Have It Golf Collectibles, Inc". 106 F.Supp.2d 1289 (2000) United States District Court, S.D. Florida. June 22, 2000. Retrieved May 24, 2014. Batterman, L. Robert; Cardozo, Michael; Freeman, Robert E.; Ganz, Howard L.; Katz, Wayne D.; Leccese, Joseph M. (May 17, 2014). "Tiger Woods Misses the Cut in Golf Memorabilia Dispute". National Law Review. Proskauer Rose LLP. Retrieved May 24, 2014. Gotta Have It Golf, Inc. v. Arnold Palmer Enterprises, Inc., No. 03-19490 (Fla. Cir. Ct. Jury Verdict) , March 12, 2014 McEwan, Michael (August 4, 2016). "Tiger Woods to seek new equipment partner". bunkered. Dennett, Craig (August 3, 2016). "Nike to exit golf equipment industry". bunkered. Harig, Bob (January 25, 2017). "Tiger Woods' move to TaylorMade". ESPN. Sobel, Jason (January 25, 2017). "Tiger adds Cameron back into bag". ESPN. Rovell, Darren (December 1, 2016). "Tiger Woods picks up Monster Energy". ABC News. "Divorce decree" (PDF). August 23, 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2010. Sounes, Howard (2004). The Wicked Game: Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Tiger Woods, and the Story of Modern Golf. Harper Collins. pp. 120–121, 293. ISBN 0-06-051386-1. Freedman, Jonah (2007). "The Fortunate 50". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 20, 2008. Sirak, Ron (February 2008). "The Golf Digest 50". Golf Digest. Retrieved January 11, 2007. "Report: Tiger richest athlete in history". ESPN. October 2, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009. Badenhausen, Kurt (October 1, 2009). "Woods is sports' first billion-dollar man". Forbes. Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on October 6, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009. Miller, Matthew (May 6, 2009). "The Wealthiest Black Americans". Forbes. Retrieved December 17, 2009. Forbes' list of world's highest-paid athletes, Forbes. "How Much Do The World's Top 10 Golfers Earn Per Shot?". November 20, 2017. Lyon, Bill (August 16, 2000). "Woods bad for golf? There's an unplayable lie". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Brown, Jennifer; Quitters Never Win: The (Adverse) Incentive Effects of Competing with Superstars Archived April 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Job Market Paper, November 2007 "Tiger Woods Press Conference:The Open Championship". TigerWoods.com. ASAP Sports. July 12, 2005. Archived from the original on March 16, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Celizic, Mike (July 24, 2006). "Tiger is greatest closer ever". MSNBC. Retrieved August 12, 2007. Maginnes, John (August 12, 2007). "Goliath will surely fall one day. Or will he?". PGA Tour. Retrieved August 12, 2007. "Cabrera wins devilish battle at U.S. Open". ESPN. Associated Press. June 20, 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2007. Harig, Bob (May 13, 2013). "Tiger Woods shows off his command". ESPN. Retrieved May 15, 2013. Romine, Brentley (May 12, 2013). "5 Things: Woods captures fourth Tour title in '13". Golfweek. Retrieved May 15, 2013. "Highlights: How Dufner won the 95th PGA Champ". Golf Channel. August 11, 2013. Farrell, Andy (July 24, 2000). "Woods moves majestically to grand slam". The Independent. Retrieved May 20, 2009. "Career Money Leaders". PGA Tour. Retrieved June 2, 2019. "Guinness World Records online registry, the result of the linked search will display higher number of records, however many of those displayed contain the name of Usain Bolt in the description of the record but don't belong to him". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. "Woods threatens all records at the Masters". Canadian Online Explorer. Associated Press. April 12, 1997. Archived from the original on March 30, 2005. Retrieved August 6, 2007. "Tiger had more than just length in annihilating Augusta". Sports Illustrated. Associated Press. April 14, 1997. Retrieved June 20, 2009. Polinski, Cara (July 8, 2003). "True Temper Wins Again!". The Wire. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007. "Woods, Mickelson clear the air, put spat behind them". ESPN. February 13, 2003. Retrieved August 6, 2007. "Phil Mickelson clarifies Tiger comments". Golf Today. Retrieved August 6, 2007. "Case Study: Tiger Woods". Linkage Incorporated. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved June 24, 2009. "When Par isn't good enough". APMP.org. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved May 12, 2007. Bradley, Ed (September 3, 2006). "Tiger Woods Up Close And Personal". CBS News. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Harmon, Butch (2006). The Pro: Lessons About Golf and Life from My Father, Claude Harmon, Sr. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-307-33804-5. Rosaforte, Tim (May 10, 2010). "Haney Resigns; Who Will Be Next?". Golf Digest. "Canadian Swing Coach Foley Helping Tiger at PGA Championship". Canadian Press. August 10, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010. "Woods Dismisses His Caddie Cowan". The New York Times. March 9, 1999. Retrieved May 13, 2007. "Tiger's Caddie Reflects on "Defining" Moment at Medinah". Golf Channel. Associated Press. August 8, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2007. Porter, Kyle. "Steve Williams tells the story about how Tiger Woods fired him". CBS Sports. "Tiger Woods hires caddie Joe LaCava". ESPN. Associated Press. September 27, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012. "Winner's Bag: Tiger Woods, Tour Championship". PGA Tour. Wall, Jonathan (November 29, 2016). "Tiger to debut TW '17 shoe at Hero World Challenge". PGA Tour. Cannizzaro, Mark (August 29, 2007). "Tiger Pitch Ad-Nauseam". New York Post. Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2009. "Tiger WITB 2017". GolfWRX. November 30, 2016. "Tiger Woods' Putter Headcover". "Mattingly Expected to Retire After Sitting Out 1996 Season". The Los Angeles Times. January 22, 1997. Brennan, Patricia (April 13, 1997). "The Changing Face of Golf; A CBS Profile of the Hottest Guy on the Links". The Washington Post. "With Clinton at his side, Woods opens his learning center". GolfWeb Wire Services. February 10, 2006. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011. "Programs: TWLC: Junior Golf Team". Tiger Woods Foundation. Archived from the original on January 28, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012. Harig, Bob (December 1, 2010). "Tiger Woods' foundation suffered greatly". ESPN. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Lamport-Stokes, Mark (December 17, 2007). "Tiger eyes legacy away from sport". Reuters. Retrieved January 20, 2011. "Tiger visits new TWLC Florida campus in Stuart". Tiger Woods Foundation. December 9, 2011. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012. "Events: Tiger Woods Invitational". Tiger Woods Foundation. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012. "The fifth annual Block Party raises more than $500,000". Tiger Woods Foundation. October 18, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012. "Tiger Woods Speaks About Injury, PGA Tour Athlets During Jam". GolfLasVegasNow.com. April 30, 2011. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Carpenter, Eric (December 14, 2009). "Tiger Woods takes hiatus from OC foundation". The Orange County Register. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Soltau, Mark (November 6, 2006). "Tiger Woods' next step: Design golf courses". ESPN. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Wolfensberger, Marc (December 3, 2006). "Tiger Woods Will Design First Golf Course in Dubai". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Fattah, Zainab (February 1, 2010). "Tiger Woods's Dubai Golf Resort Will Be Completed, Builder Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Sullivan, Paul (April 2, 2011). "For Tiger Woods, a Golf Course Design Business Is in the Rough". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2013. McGinley, Shane (July 9, 2013). "Dubai Holding 'dissolves' Tiger Woods partnership". arabianbusiness.com. ITP Publishing Group. "Tiger to design his first U.S. course". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved August 15, 2007. Louis, Brian; Taub, Daniel (October 7, 2008). "Tiger Woods and Flagship to Build Mexico Golf Resort". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 5, 2010. "New deal includes instruction, Web pieces". ESPN. Associated Press. May 8, 2002. Retrieved June 18, 2008. Snider, Mike (October 9, 2001). "Tiger Woods joins the club of golf book authors". USA Today. Retrieved June 20, 2008. Stachura, Mike (March 14, 2017). "Tiger Woods' new book is a vivid but cautious reflection on his landmark win". Golf Digest. Retrieved March 19, 2017. "Five things you didn't know about Elin Nordegren". CNN. December 4, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2009. "Woods ties the knot". BBC Sport. October 6, 2004. Retrieved August 23, 2010. "Tiger Woods buys $40 million estate". The New York Times. January 1, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2010. White, Joseph (July 3, 2007). "Woods played U.S. Open while wife was in hospital". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 2, 2009. "Tiger becomes dad for second time". ESPN. Associated Press. February 9, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009. "World Exclusive: Woman at Center of Tiger Woods Cheating Scandal Exposed!!". National Enquirer. November 28, 2008. Retrieved May 29, 2017. "Tiger Woods admits "transgressions," apologizes". Reuters. December 2, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2012. DiMeglio, Steve (December 3, 2009). "Woods crash did $3,200 damage to hydrant, tree". USA Today. Retrieved January 23, 2012. Corrigan, James (November 28, 2009). "Tiger injured in late-night car accident". The Independent. Retrieved January 23, 2012. "Tiger Woods issues statement on crash". USA Today. Associated Press. November 30, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2012. Woods, Tiger (November 29, 2009). "Statement from Tiger Woods". TigerWoods.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2012. "Tiger Woods Cancels Tourney Appearance". CBS News. November 30, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2010. "Hear Tiger Panic to Mistress: "My Wife May Be Calling You"". Us Weekly. December 2, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2016. Woods, Tiger (December 2, 2009). "Tiger comments on current events". TigerWoods.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009. "GM ends car loans for Tiger Woods". BBC News. London. January 13, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2010. "Tiger Woods loses Gatorade sponsorship". BBC News. February 27, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2010. Golf Digest, February 2010. Klayman, Ben (January 4, 2010). "EA Sports moves forward with Tiger game rollout". Reuters. Retrieved January 23, 2012. Goldiner, Dave (December 29, 2012). "Tiger Woods' mistress scandal costs shareholders of sponsors like Nike, Gatorade $12 billion". New York Daily News. "Transcript: Tiger's public statement". Web.tigerwoods.com. ASAP Sports. February 19, 2010. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2010. Rude, Jeff (March 17, 2010). "Woods' return shows he's ready to win". Fox Sports. Retrieved March 23, 2010. Helling, Steve (August 23, 2010). "Tiger Woods and Elin Nordegren's Divorce Is Final". People. Retrieved September 5, 2010. "Booking Blotter". Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office. May 29, 2017. Alexander, Harriet; Curtis, Ben (May 29, 2017). "Tiger Woods blames driving arrest on 'prescribed medications', not alcohol". The Telegraph. "Tiger Woods found asleep in car at time of arrest; no alcohol found in breath test". ESPN. May 30, 2017. Bieler, Des (July 3, 2017). "Tiger Woods announces that he's completed a 'private intensive program'". Washington Post. Winsor, Morgan (August 9, 2017). "Tiger Woods pleads not guilty to DUI charges". ABC News. Greenlee, Will (August 10, 2017). "Tiger Woods to take part in DUI first-offender program – Videos". USA Today. Anderson, Curt; Spencer , Terry (October 27, 2017). "Tiger Woods found guilty of reckless driving". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. "Tiger Woods makes emotional apology for infidelity". BBC News. London. February 19, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010. Wright, Robert (July 24, 2000). "Gandhi and Tiger Woods". Slate. Retrieved August 13, 2007. "Tiger Woods Returns to Buddhism". ISKCON News. February 20, 2010. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010. Abcarian, Robin (December 13, 2009). "How did Tiger keep his secrets?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 13, 2009. "Tiger to speak at Lincoln Memorial". ESPN. Associated Press. January 16, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009. "Tiger Woods gives speech at Obama inauguration". Golf Today. January 21, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2009. Montopoli, Brian (April 23, 2009). "Tiger Woods in the White House". CBS News. Retrieved May 3, 2009. Porter, Kyle (November 24, 2017). "President Trump plays post-Thanksgiving golf with Tiger Woods and Dustin Johnson". CBS News. Retrieved November 25, 2017. "Tiger Woods announces his relationship with Lindsey Vonn". USA Today. March 18, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2013. "Woods, Vonn end relationship". PGA Tour. Associated Press. May 3, 2015. Christie, Sam (April 7, 2018). "Ex-golfriend: Who is Kristin Smith? Tiger Woods' ex-girlfriend, stylist and former wife of Dallas Cowboys star Gerald Sensabaugh". The Sun. Retrieved April 17, 2019. Kavanagh, Joanne (April 17, 2019). "Tiger's Girl?: Who is Tiger Woods girlfriend Erica Herman and how long has Masters 2019 champion been with the restaurant manager?". The Sun. Retrieved April 17, 2019. Further reading Andrisani, John (1997). The Tiger Woods Way: An Analysis of Tiger Woods' Power-Swing Technique. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-609-80139-2. OCLC 55124056. Clary, Jack (1997). Tiger Woods. Twickenham, England: Tiger Books International. ISBN 978-1-85501-954-6. OCLC 40859379. Feinstein, John (1999). The Majors: In Pursuit of Golf's Holy Grail. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-27971-0. OCLC 40602886. Londino, Lawrence J. (2006). Tiger Woods: A Biography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33121-3. OCLC 61109403. Rosaforte, Tim (2000). Raising the Bar: The Championship Years of Tiger Woods. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-27212-8. OCLC 45248211. Woods, Tiger (2001). How I Play Golf. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-52931-0. OCLC 46992172. Woods, Earl; McDaniel, Pete (1997). Training a Tiger: A Father's Guide to Raising a Winner in Both Golf and Life. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-06-270178-7. OCLC 35925055. External links Tiger Woods at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Official website Tiger Woods at the PGA Tour official site Tiger Woods at the European Tour official site Tiger Woods at the Japan Golf Tour official site Tiger Woods at the Official World Golf Ranking official site Tiger Woods Foundation Tiger Woods Learning Center Tiger Woods on IMDb Tiger Woods' Videos on mReplay Tiger Woods Video on ESPN Video Archive Tiger Woods Video on FoxSports Video Archive vte Tiger Woods Golf achievements Professional career Career achievements Tournament performances Foundation Quicken Loans National Learning Center Hero World Challenge Tiger Woods Design The Cliffs at High Carolina Al Ruwaya Golf Course Punta Brava Other ventures PGA Tour Monday Night Golf The Match Films and television The Tiger Woods Story Family Elin Nordegren (former wife) Earl Woods (father) Cheyenne Woods (niece) Related Steve Williams (caddie) Tiger Woods in the major championships vte Masters Tournament champions 1934 Horton Smith 1935 Gene Sarazen† 1936 Horton Smith 1937 Byron Nelson 1938 Henry Picard 1939 Ralph Guldahl 1940 Jimmy Demaret 1941‡ Craig Wood 1942 Byron Nelson† 1943–45 cancelled due to World War II 1946 Herman Keiser 1947 Jimmy Demaret 1948 Claude Harmon 1949 Sam Snead 1950 Jimmy Demaret 1951 Ben Hogan 1952 Sam Snead 1953 Ben Hogan 1954 Sam Snead† 1955 Cary Middlecoff 1956 Jack Burke Jr. 1957 Doug Ford 1958 Arnold Palmer 1959 Art Wall Jr. 1960‡ Arnold Palmer 1961 Gary Player 1962 Arnold Palmer† 1963 Jack Nicklaus 1964 Arnold Palmer 1965 Jack Nicklaus 1966 Jack Nicklaus† 1967 Gay Brewer 1968 Bob Goalby 1969 George Archer 1970 Billy Casper† 1971 Charles Coody 1972‡ Jack Nicklaus 1973 Tommy Aaron 1974 Gary Player 1975 Jack Nicklaus 1976‡ Raymond Floyd 1977 Tom Watson 1978 Gary Player 1979 Fuzzy Zoeller† 1980 Seve Ballesteros 1981 Tom Watson 1982 Craig Stadler† 1983 Seve Ballesteros 1984 Ben Crenshaw 1985 Bernhard Langer 1986 Jack Nicklaus 1987 Larry Mize† 1988 Sandy Lyle 1989 Nick Faldo† 1990 Nick Faldo† 1991 Ian Woosnam 1992 Fred Couples 1993 Bernhard Langer 1994 José María Olazábal 1995 Ben Crenshaw 1996 Nick Faldo 1997 Tiger Woods 1998 Mark O'Meara 1999 José María Olazábal 2000 Vijay Singh 2001 Tiger Woods 2002 Tiger Woods 2003 Mike Weir† 2004 Phil Mickelson 2005 Tiger Woods† 2006 Phil Mickelson 2007 Zach Johnson 2008 Trevor Immelman 2009 Ángel Cabrera† 2010 Phil Mickelson 2011 Charl Schwartzel 2012 Bubba Watson† 2013 Adam Scott† 2014 Bubba Watson 2015‡ Jordan Spieth 2016 Danny Willett 2017 Sergio García† 2018 Patrick Reed 2019 Tiger Woods † indicates the event was won in a playoff; ‡ indicates the event was won wire-to-wire vte U.S. Open champions 1895 Horace Rawlins 1896 James Foulis 1897 Joe Lloyd 1898 Fred Herd 1899 Willie Smith 1900 Harry Vardon 1901 Willie Anderson† 1902 Laurie Auchterlonie 1903 Willie Anderson† 1904 Willie Anderson 1905 Willie Anderson 1906 Alex Smith 1907 Alec Ross 1908 Fred McLeod† 1909 George Sargent 1910 Alex Smith† 1911 John McDermott† 1912 John McDermott 1913 Francis Ouimet#† 1914‡ Walter Hagen 1915 Jerome Travers# 1916 Chick Evans# 1917–18 Cancelled due to World War I 1919 Walter Hagen† 1920 Ted Ray 1921‡ Jim Barnes 1922 Gene Sarazen 1923 Bobby Jones#† 1924 Cyril Walker 1925 Willie Macfarlane† 1926 Bobby Jones# 1927 Tommy Armour† 1928 Johnny Farrell† 1929 Bobby Jones#† 1930 Bobby Jones# 1931 Billy Burke† 1932 Gene Sarazen 1933 Johnny Goodman# 1934 Olin Dutra 1935 Sam Parks Jr. 1936 Tony Manero 1937 Ralph Guldahl 1938 Ralph Guldahl 1939 Byron Nelson† 1940 Lawson Little† 1941 Craig Wood 1942–45 Cancelled due to World War II 1946 Lloyd Mangrum† 1947 Lew Worsham† 1948 Ben Hogan 1949 Cary Middlecoff 1950 Ben Hogan† 1951 Ben Hogan 1952 Julius Boros 1953‡ Ben Hogan 1954 Ed Furgol 1955 Jack Fleck† 1956 Cary Middlecoff 1957 Dick Mayer† 1958 Tommy Bolt 1959 Billy Casper 1960 Arnold Palmer 1961 Gene Littler 1962 Jack Nicklaus† 1963 Julius Boros† 1964 Ken Venturi 1965 Gary Player† 1966 Billy Casper† 1967 Jack Nicklaus 1968 Lee Trevino 1969 Orville Moody 1970‡ Tony Jacklin 1971 Lee Trevino† 1972 Jack Nicklaus 1973 Johnny Miller 1974 Hale Irwin 1975 Lou Graham† 1976 Jerry Pate 1977 Hubert Green 1978 Andy North 1979 Hale Irwin 1980 Jack Nicklaus 1981 David Graham 1982 Tom Watson 1983 Larry Nelson 1984 Fuzzy Zoeller† 1985 Andy North 1986 Raymond Floyd 1987 Scott Simpson 1988 Curtis Strange† 1989 Curtis Strange 1990 Hale Irwin† 1991 Payne Stewart† 1992 Tom Kite 1993 Lee Janzen 1994 Ernie Els† 1995 Corey Pavin 1996 Steve Jones 1997 Ernie Els 1998 Lee Janzen 1999 Payne Stewart 2000‡ Tiger Woods 2001 Retief Goosen† 2002‡ Tiger Woods 2003 Jim Furyk 2004 Retief Goosen 2005 Michael Campbell 2006 Geoff Ogilvy 2007 Ángel Cabrera 2008 Tiger Woods† 2009 Lucas Glover 2010 Graeme McDowell 2011‡ Rory McIlroy 2012 Webb Simpson 2013 Justin Rose 2014‡ Martin Kaymer 2015 Jordan Spieth 2016 Dustin Johnson 2017 Brooks Koepka 2018 Brooks Koepka 2019 Gary Woodland † indicates the event was won in a playoff; ‡ indicates the event was won wire-to-wire; # indicates the event was won by an amateur vte The Open Championship champions 1860 Willie Park Sr. 1861 Tom Morris Sr. 1862 Tom Morris Sr. 1863 Willie Park Sr. 1864 Tom Morris Sr. 1865 Andrew Strath 1866 Willie Park Sr. 1867 Tom Morris Sr. 1868 Tom Morris Jr. 1869 Tom Morris Jr. 1870 Tom Morris Jr. 1871 No championship 1872 Tom Morris Jr. 1873 Tom Kidd 1874 Mungo Park 1875 Willie Park Sr. 1876 Bob Martin† 1877 Jamie Anderson 1878 Jamie Anderson 1879 Jamie Anderson 1880 Bob Ferguson 1881 Bob Ferguson 1882 Bob Ferguson 1883 Willie Fernie† 1884 Jack Simpson 1885 Bob Martin 1886 David Brown 1887 Willie Park Jr. 1888 Jack Burns 1889 Willie Park Jr.† 1890 John Ball# 1891 Hugh Kirkaldy 1892 Harold Hilton# 1893 William Auchterlonie 1894 John Henry Taylor 1895 John Henry Taylor 1896 Harry Vardon† 1897 Harold Hilton# 1898 Harry Vardon 1899 Harry Vardon 1900 John Henry Taylor 1901 James Braid 1902 Sandy Herd 1903 Harry Vardon 1904 Jack White 1905 James Braid 1906 James Braid 1907 Arnaud Massy 1908 James Braid 1909 John Henry Taylor 1910 James Braid 1911 Harry Vardon† 1912‡ Edward Ray 1913 John Henry Taylor 1914 Harry Vardon 1915–19 No Championships due to World War I 1920 George Duncan 1921 Jock Hutchison† 1922 Walter Hagen 1923 Arthur Havers 1924 Walter Hagen 1925 Jim Barnes 1926 Bobby Jones# 1927‡ Bobby Jones# 1928 Walter Hagen 1929 Walter Hagen 1930 Bobby Jones# 1931 Tommy Armour 1932‡ Gene Sarazen 1933 Denny Shute† 1934‡ Henry Cotton 1935 Alf Perry 1936 Alf Padgham 1937 Henry Cotton 1938 Reg Whitcombe 1939 Dick Burton 1940–45 No Championships due to World War II 1946 Sam Snead 1947 Fred Daly 1948 Henry Cotton 1949 Bobby Locke† 1950 Bobby Locke 1951 Max Faulkner 1952 Bobby Locke 1953 Ben Hogan 1954 Peter Thomson 1955 Peter Thomson 1956 Peter Thomson 1957 Bobby Locke 1958 Peter Thomson† 1959 Gary Player 1960 Kel Nagle 1961 Arnold Palmer 1962 Arnold Palmer 1963 Bob Charles† 1964 Tony Lema 1965 Peter Thomson 1966 Jack Nicklaus 1967 Roberto De Vicenzo 1968 Gary Player 1969 Tony Jacklin 1970 Jack Nicklaus† 1971 Lee Trevino 1972 Lee Trevino 1973‡ Tom Weiskopf 1974 Gary Player 1975 Tom Watson† 1976 Johnny Miller 1977 Tom Watson 1978 Jack Nicklaus 1979 Seve Ballesteros 1980 Tom Watson 1981 Bill Rogers 1982 Tom Watson 1983 Tom Watson 1984 Seve Ballesteros 1985 Sandy Lyle 1986 Greg Norman 1987 Nick Faldo 1988 Seve Ballesteros 1989 Mark Calcavecchia† 1990 Nick Faldo 1991 Ian Baker-Finch 1992 Nick Faldo 1993 Greg Norman 1994 Nick Price 1995 John Daly† 1996 Tom Lehman 1997 Justin Leonard 1998 Mark O'Meara† 1999 Paul Lawrie† 2000 Tiger Woods 2001 David Duval 2002 Ernie Els† 2003 Ben Curtis 2004 Todd Hamilton† 2005‡ Tiger Woods 2006 Tiger Woods 2007 Pádraig Harrington† 2008 Pádraig Harrington 2009 Stewart Cink† 2010 Louis Oosthuizen 2011 Darren Clarke 2012 Ernie Els 2013 Phil Mickelson 2014‡ Rory McIlroy 2015 Zach Johnson† 2016 Henrik Stenson 2017 Jordan Spieth 2018 Francesco Molinari † indicates the event was won in a playoff; ‡ indicates the event was won wire-to-wire in 72-holes; # indicates the event was won by an amateur vte PGA Championship champions Match play era 1916 Jim Barnes 1917–18 Cancelled due to World War I 1919 Jim Barnes 1920 Jock Hutchison 1921 Walter Hagen 1922 Gene Sarazen 1923 Gene Sarazen 1924 Walter Hagen 1925 Walter Hagen 1926 Walter Hagen 1927 Walter Hagen 1928 Leo Diegel 1929 Leo Diegel 1930 Tommy Armour 1931 Tom Creavy 1932 Olin Dutra 1933 Gene Sarazen 1934 Paul Runyan 1935 Johnny Revolta 1936 Denny Shute 1937 Denny Shute 1938 Paul Runyan 1939 Henry Picard 1940 Byron Nelson 1941 Vic Ghezzi 1942 Sam Snead 1943 Cancelled due to World War II 1944 Bob Hamilton 1945 Byron Nelson 1946 Ben Hogan 1947 Jim Ferrier 1948 Ben Hogan 1949 Sam Snead 1950 Chandler Harper 1951 Sam Snead 1952 Jim Turnesa 1953 Walter Burkemo 1954 Chick Harbert 1955 Doug Ford 1956 Jack Burke Jr. 1957 Lionel Hebert Stroke play era 1958 Dow Finsterwald 1959 Bob Rosburg 1960 Jay Hebert 1961 Jerry Barber† 1962 Gary Player 1963 Jack Nicklaus 1964‡ Bobby Nichols 1965 Dave Marr 1966 Al Geiberger 1967 Don January† 1968 Julius Boros 1969‡ Raymond Floyd 1970 Dave Stockton 1971 Jack Nicklaus 1972 Gary Player 1973 Jack Nicklaus 1974 Lee Trevino 1975 Jack Nicklaus 1976 Dave Stockton 1977 Lanny Wadkins† 1978 John Mahaffey† 1979 David Graham† 1980 Jack Nicklaus 1981 Larry Nelson 1982‡ Raymond Floyd 1983‡ Hal Sutton 1984 Lee Trevino 1985 Hubert Green 1986 Bob Tway 1987 Larry Nelson† 1988 Jeff Sluman 1989 Payne Stewart 1990 Wayne Grady 1991 John Daly 1992 Nick Price 1993 Paul Azinger† 1994 Nick Price 1995 Steve Elkington† 1996 Mark Brooks† 1997 Davis Love III 1998 Vijay Singh 1999 Tiger Woods 2000‡ Tiger Woods† 2001 David Toms 2002 Rich Beem 2003 Shaun Micheel 2004 Vijay Singh† 2005 Phil Mickelson 2006 Tiger Woods 2007 Tiger Woods 2008 Pádraig Harrington 2009 Y. E. Yang 2010 Martin Kaymer† 2011 Keegan Bradley† 2012 Rory McIlroy 2013 Jason Dufner 2014 Rory McIlroy 2015 Jason Day 2016 Jimmy Walker 2017 Justin Thomas 2018 Brooks Koepka 2019 Brooks Koepka † indicates the event was won in a playoff; ‡ indicates the event was won wire-to-wire vte Men's Career Grand Slam Champion Golfers 1930 Bobby Jones (1) 1935 Gene Sarazen (1) 1953 Ben Hogan (1) 1965 Gary Player (1) 1966 Jack Nicklaus (1) 1971 Jack Nicklaus (2) 1978 Jack Nicklaus (3) 2000 Tiger Woods (1) 2005 Tiger Woods (2) 2008 Tiger Woods (3) vte World Golf Championships champions WGC-Championship 1999 Tiger Woods† 2000 Mike Weir 2001 Cancelled 2002 Tiger Woods 2003 Tiger Woods 2004 Ernie Els 2005 Tiger Woods† 2006 Tiger Woods 2007 Tiger Woods 2008 Geoff Ogilvy 2009 Phil Mickelson 2010 Ernie Els 2011 Nick Watney 2012 Justin Rose 2013 Tiger Woods 2014 Patrick Reed 2015 Dustin Johnson 2016 Adam Scott 2017 Dustin Johnson 2018 Phil Mickelson 2019 Dustin Johnson WGC-Match Play 1999 Jeff Maggert 2000 Darren Clarke 2001 Steve Stricker 2002 Kevin Sutherland 2003 Tiger Woods 2004 Tiger Woods 2005 David Toms 2006 Geoff Ogilvy 2007 Henrik Stenson 2008 Tiger Woods 2009 Geoff Ogilvy 2010 Ian Poulter 2011 Luke Donald 2012 Hunter Mahan 2013 Matt Kuchar 2014 Jason Day 2015 Rory McIlroy 2016 Jason Day 2017 Dustin Johnson 2018 Bubba Watson 2019 Kevin Kisner WGC-Invitational 1999 Tiger Woods 2000 Tiger Woods 2001 Tiger Woods† 2002 Craig Parry 2003 Darren Clarke 2004 Stewart Cink 2005 Tiger Woods 2006 Tiger Woods† 2007 Tiger Woods 2008 Vijay Singh 2009 Tiger Woods 2010 Hunter Mahan 2011 Adam Scott 2012 Keegan Bradley 2013 Tiger Woods 2014 Rory McIlroy 2015 Shane Lowry 2016 Dustin Johnson 2017 Hideki Matsuyama 2018 Justin Thomas WGC-Champions 2009 Phil Mickelson 2010 Francesco Molinari 2011 Martin Kaymer 2012 Ian Poulter 2013 Dustin Johnson 2014 Bubba Watson 2015 Russell Knox 2016 Hideki Matsuyama 2017 Justin Rose 2018 Xander Schauffele WGC-World Cup 2000 David Duval / Tiger Woods 2001 Ernie Els / Retief Goosen 2002 Toshimitsu Izawa / Shigeki Maruyama 2003 Trevor Immelman / Rory Sabbatini 2004 Paul Casey / Luke Donald 2005 Stephen Dodd / Bradley Dredge 2006 Bernhard Langer / Marcel Siem No longer WGC event † indicates the event was won in a playoff vte Players Championship champions 1974 Jack Nicklaus 1975 Al Geiberger 1976 Jack Nicklaus 1977 Mark Hayes 1978 Jack Nicklaus 1979 Lanny Wadkins 1980 Lee Trevino 1981 Raymond Floyd† 1982 Jerry Pate 1983 Hal Sutton 1984 Fred Couples 1985 Calvin Peete 1986 John Mahaffey 1987 Sandy Lyle† 1988 Mark McCumber 1989 Tom Kite 1990 Jodie Mudd 1991 Steve Elkington 1992 Davis Love III 1993 Nick Price 1994 Greg Norman 1995 Lee Janzen 1996 Fred Couples 1997 Steve Elkington 1998 Justin Leonard 1999 David Duval 2000 Hal Sutton 2001 Tiger Woods 2002 Craig Perks 2003 Davis Love III 2004 Adam Scott 2005 Fred Funk 2006 Stephen Ames 2007 Phil Mickelson 2008 Sergio García† 2009 Henrik Stenson 2010 Tim Clark 2011 K. J. Choi† 2012 Matt Kuchar 2013 Tiger Woods 2014 Martin Kaymer 2015 Rickie Fowler† 2016 Jason Day 2017 Kim Si-woo 2018 Webb Simpson 2019 Rory McIlroy † indicates the event was won in a playoff Tiger Woods in the Ryder Cup vte United States Ryder Cup team – 1997 Fred Couples Brad Faxon Jim Furyk Scott Hoch Lee Janzen Tom Lehman Justin Leonard Davis Love III Jeff Maggert Phil Mickelson Mark O'Meara Tiger Woods Tom Kite (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 13.5 – 14.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 1999 David Duval Jim Furyk Tom Lehman Justin Leonard Davis Love III Jeff Maggert Phil Mickelson Mark O'Meara Steve Pate Payne Stewart Hal Sutton Tiger Woods Ben Crenshaw (non-playing captain) United States Won: 14.5 – 13.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2002 Paul Azinger Mark Calcavecchia Stewart Cink David Duval Jim Furyk Scott Hoch Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Hal Sutton David Toms Scott Verplank Tiger Woods Curtis Strange (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 12.5 – 15.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2004 Chad Campbell Stewart Cink Chris DiMarco Fred Funk Jim Furyk Jay Haas Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Kenny Perry Chris Riley David Toms Tiger Woods Hal Sutton (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 9.5 – 18.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2006 Chad Campbell Stewart Cink Chris DiMarco Jim Furyk J. J. Henry Zach Johnson Phil Mickelson Vaughn Taylor David Toms Scott Verplank Brett Wetterich Tiger Woods Tom Lehman (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 9.5 – 18.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2010 Stewart Cink Rickie Fowler Jim Furyk Dustin Johnson Zach Johnson Matt Kuchar Hunter Mahan Phil Mickelson Jeff Overton Steve Stricker Bubba Watson Tiger Woods Corey Pavin (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 13.5 – 14.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2012 Keegan Bradley Jason Dufner Jim Furyk Dustin Johnson Zach Johnson Matt Kuchar Phil Mickelson Webb Simpson Brandt Snedeker Steve Stricker Bubba Watson Tiger Woods Davis Love III (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 13.5 – 14.5 vte United States Ryder Cup team – 2018 Bryson DeChambeau Tony Finau Rickie Fowler Dustin Johnson Brooks Koepka Phil Mickelson Patrick Reed Webb Simpson Jordan Spieth Justin Thomas Bubba Watson Tiger Woods Jim Furyk (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 10½ – 17½ Tiger Woods in the Presidents Cup vte United States Presidents Cup team – 1998 Mark Calcavecchia Fred Couples David Duval Jim Furyk Scott Hoch John Huston Lee Janzen Justin Leonard Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Mark O'Meara Tiger Woods Jack Nicklaus (non-playing captain) United States Lost: 11.5 – 20.5 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2000 Paul Azinger Notah Begay III Stewart Cink David Duval Jim Furyk Tom Lehman Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Loren Roberts Hal Sutton Kirk Triplett Tiger Woods Ken Venturi (non-playing captain) United States Won: 21.5 – 10.5 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2003 Chris DiMarco Fred Funk Jim Furyk Jay Haas Charles Howell III Jerry Kelly Justin Leonard Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Kenny Perry David Toms Tiger Woods Jack Nicklaus (non-playing captain) United States Tied: 17 – 17 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2005 Stewart Cink Fred Couples Chris DiMarco Fred Funk Jim Furyk Justin Leonard Davis Love III Phil Mickelson Kenny Perry David Toms Scott Verplank Tiger Woods Jack Nicklaus (non-playing captain) United States Won: 18.5 – 15.5 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2007 Woody Austin Stewart Cink Jim Furyk Lucas Glover Charles Howell III Zach Johnson Hunter Mahan Phil Mickelson Steve Stricker David Toms Scott Verplank Tiger Woods Jack Nicklaus (non-playing captain) United States Won: 19.5 – 14.5 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2009 Stewart Cink Jim Furyk Lucas Glover Zach Johnson Anthony Kim Justin Leonard Hunter Mahan Phil Mickelson Sean O'Hair Kenny Perry Steve Stricker Tiger Woods Fred Couples (non-playing captain) United States Won: 19.5 – 14.5 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2011 Jim Furyk Bill Haas Dustin Johnson Matt Kuchar Hunter Mahan Phil Mickelson Webb Simpson Steve Stricker David Toms Nick Watney Bubba Watson Tiger Woods Fred Couples (non-playing captain) United States Won: 19 – 15 vte United States Presidents Cup team – 2013 Keegan Bradley Jason Dufner Bill Haas Zach Johnson Matt Kuchar Hunter Mahan Phil Mickelson Webb Simpson Brandt Snedeker Jordan Spieth Steve Stricker Tiger Woods Fred Couples (non-playing captain) United States Won: 18.5 – 15.5 vte U.S. Amateur champions 1895 Charles B. Macdonald 1896 H. J. Whigham 1897 H. J. Whigham 1898 Findlay S. Douglas 1899 Herbert M. Harriman 1900 Walter Travis 1901 Walter Travis 1902 Louis N. James 1903 Walter Travis 1904 Chandler Egan 1905 Chandler Egan 1906 Eben Byers 1907 Jerome Travers 1908 Jerome Travers 1909 Robert A. Gardner 1910 William C. Fownes Jr. 1911 Harold Hilton† 1912 Jerome Travers 1913 Jerome Travers 1914 Francis Ouimet 1915 Robert A. Gardner 1916 Chick Evans 1917–18 Cancelled due to World War I 1919 Davidson Herron 1920 Chick Evans 1921 Jesse Guilford 1922 Jess Sweetser 1923 Max Marston† 1924 Bobby Jones 1925 Bobby Jones 1926 George Von Elm 1927 Bobby Jones 1928 Bobby Jones 1929 Jimmy Johnston 1930 Bobby Jones 1931 Francis Ouimet 1932 Ross Somerville 1933 George Dunlap 1934 Lawson Little 1935 Lawson Little 1936 Johnny Fischer† 1937 Johnny Goodman 1938 Willie Turnesa 1939 Bud Ward 1940 Dick Chapman 1941 Bud Ward 1942–45 Cancelled due to World War II 1946 Ted Bishop† 1947 Skee Riegel 1948 Willie Turnesa 1949 Charles Coe 1950 Sam Urzetta† 1951 Billy Maxwell 1952 Jack Westland 1953 Gene Littler 1954 Arnold Palmer 1955 Harvie Ward 1956 Harvie Ward 1957 Hillman Robbins 1958 Charles Coe 1959 Jack Nicklaus 1960 Deane Beman 1961 Jack Nicklaus 1962 Labron Harris Jr. 1963 Deane Beman 1964 William C. Campbell 1965 Bob Murphy 1966 Gary Cowan† 1967 Bob Dickson 1968 Bruce Fleisher 1969 Steve Melnyk 1970 Lanny Wadkins 1971 Gary Cowan 1972 Vinny Giles 1973 Craig Stadler 1974 Jerry Pate 1975 Fred Ridley 1976 Bill Sander 1977 John Fought 1978 John Cook 1979 Mark O'Meara 1980 Hal Sutton 1981 Nathaniel Crosby 1982 Jay Sigel 1983 Jay Sigel 1984 Scott Verplank 1985 Sam Randolph 1986 Buddy Alexander 1987 Billy Mayfair 1988 Eric Meeks 1989 Chris Patton 1990 Phil Mickelson 1991 Mitch Voges 1992 Justin Leonard 1993 John Harris 1994 Tiger Woods 1995 Tiger Woods 1996 Tiger Woods† 1997 Matt Kuchar 1998 Hank Kuehne 1999 David Gossett 2000 Jeff Quinney† 2001 Bubba Dickerson 2002 Ricky Barnes 2003 Nick Flanagan† 2004 Ryan Moore 2005 Edoardo Molinari 2006 Richie Ramsay 2007 Colt Knost 2008 Danny Lee 2009 An Byeong-hun 2010 Peter Uihlein 2011 Kelly Kraft 2012 Steven Fox† 2013 Matthew Fitzpatrick 2014 Gunn Yang 2015 Bryson DeChambeau 2016 Curtis Luck 2017 Doc Redman 2018 Viktor Hovland † indicates the event was won in extra holes. Tiger Woods awards and achievements vte World Number One golfers since 1986 Seve Ballesteros Fred Couples Jason Day Luke Donald David Duval Ernie Els Nick Faldo Dustin Johnson Martin Kaymer Brooks Koepka Bernhard Langer Tom Lehman Rory McIlroy Greg Norman Nick Price Justin Rose Adam Scott Vijay Singh Jordan Spieth Justin Thomas Lee Westwood Tiger Woods Ian Woosnam Player in italics denotes current number one Official World Golf Ranking vte PGA Tour Rookies of the Year 1990 Robert Gamez 1991 John Daly 1992 Mark Carnevale 1993 Vijay Singh 1994 Ernie Els 1995 Woody Austin 1996 Tiger Woods 1997 Stewart Cink 1998 Steve Flesch 1999 Carlos Franco 2000 Michael Clark II 2001 Charles Howell III 2002 Jonathan Byrd 2003 Ben Curtis 2004 Todd Hamilton 2005 Sean O'Hair 2006 Trevor Immelman 2007 Brandt Snedeker 2008 Andrés Romero 2009 Marc Leishman 2010 Rickie Fowler 2011 Keegan Bradley 2012 John Huh 2013 Jordan Spieth 2014 Chesson Hadley 2015 Daniel Berger 2016 Emiliano Grillo 2017 Xander Schauffele 2018 Aaron Wise vte PGA and PGA Tour Players of the Year PGA Players of the Year 1948 Ben Hogan 1949 Sam Snead 1950 Ben Hogan 1951 Ben Hogan 1952 Julius Boros 1953 Ben Hogan 1954 Ed Furgol 1955 Doug Ford 1956 Jack Burke Jr. 1957 Dick Mayer 1958 Dow Finsterwald 1959 Art Wall Jr. 1960 Arnold Palmer 1961 Jerry Barber 1962 Arnold Palmer 1963 Julius Boros 1964 Ken Venturi 1965 Dave Marr 1966 Billy Casper 1967 Jack Nicklaus 1968 No award 1969 Orville Moody 1970 Billy Casper 1971 Lee Trevino 1972 Jack Nicklaus 1973 Jack Nicklaus 1974 Johnny Miller 1975 Jack Nicklaus 1976 Jack Nicklaus 1977 Tom Watson 1978 Tom Watson 1979 Tom Watson 1980 Tom Watson 1981 Bill Rogers 1982 Tom Watson 1983 Hal Sutton 1984 Tom Watson 1985 Lanny Wadkins 1986 Bob Tway 1987 Paul Azinger 1988 Curtis Strange 1989 Tom Kite 1990 Nick Faldo 1991 Corey Pavin 1992 Fred Couples 1993 Nick Price 1994 Nick Price 1995 Greg Norman 1996 Tom Lehman 1997 Tiger Woods 1998 Mark O'Meara 1999 Tiger Woods 2000 Tiger Woods 2001 Tiger Woods 2002 Tiger Woods 2003 Tiger Woods 2004 Vijay Singh 2005 Tiger Woods 2006 Tiger Woods 2007 Tiger Woods 2008 Pádraig Harrington 2009 Tiger Woods 2010 Jim Furyk 2011 Luke Donald 2012 Rory McIlroy 2013 Tiger Woods 2014 Rory McIlroy 2015 Jordan Spieth 2016 Dustin Johnson 2017 Justin Thomas 2018 Brooks Koepka PGA Tour Players of the Year 1990 Wayne Levi 1991 Fred Couples 1992 Fred Couples 1993 Nick Price 1994 Nick Price 1995 Greg Norman 1996 Tom Lehman 1997 Tiger Woods 1998 Mark O'Meara 1999 Tiger Woods 2000 Tiger Woods 2001 Tiger Woods 2002 Tiger Woods 2003 Tiger Woods 2004 Vijay Singh 2005 Tiger Woods 2006 Tiger Woods 2007 Tiger Woods 2008 Pádraig Harrington 2009 Tiger Woods 2010 Jim Furyk 2011 Luke Donald 2012 Rory McIlroy 2013 Tiger Woods 2014 Rory McIlroy 2015 Jordan Spieth 2016 Dustin Johnson 2017 Justin Thomas 2018 Brooks Koepka vte Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year 1931: Pepper Martin 1932: Gene Sarazen 1933: Carl Hubbell 1934: Dizzy Dean 1935: Joe Louis 1936: Jesse Owens 1937: Don Budge 1938: Don Budge 1939: Nile Kinnick 1940: Tom Harmon 1941: Joe DiMaggio 1942: Frank Sinkwich 1943: Gunder Hägg 1944: Byron Nelson 1945: Byron Nelson 1946: Glenn Davis 1947: Johnny Lujack 1948: Lou Boudreau 1949: Leon Hart 1950: Jim Konstanty 1951: Dick Kazmaier 1952: Bob Mathias 1953: Ben Hogan 1954: Willie Mays 1955: Howard Cassady 1956: Mickey Mantle 1957: Ted Williams 1958: Herb Elliott 1959: Ingemar Johansson 1960: Rafer Johnson 1961: Roger Maris 1962: Maury Wills 1963: Sandy Koufax 1964: Don Schollander 1965: Sandy Koufax 1966: Frank Robinson 1967: Carl Yastrzemski 1968: Denny McLain 1969: Tom Seaver 1970: George Blanda 1971: Lee Trevino 1972: Mark Spitz 1973: O. J. Simpson 1974: Muhammad Ali 1975: Fred Lynn 1976: Bruce Jenner 1977: Steve Cauthen 1978: Ron Guidry 1979: Willie Stargell 1980: U.S. Olympic Hockey Team 1981: John McEnroe 1982: Wayne Gretzky 1983: Carl Lewis 1984: Carl Lewis 1985: Dwight Gooden 1986: Larry Bird 1987: Ben Johnson 1988: Orel Hershiser 1989: Joe Montana 1990: Joe Montana 1991: Michael Jordan 1992: Michael Jordan 1993: Michael Jordan 1994: George Foreman 1995: Cal Ripken Jr. 1996: Michael Johnson 1997: Tiger Woods 1998: Mark McGwire 1999: Tiger Woods 2000: Tiger Woods 2001: Barry Bonds 2002: Lance Armstrong 2003: Lance Armstrong 2004: Lance Armstrong 2005: Lance Armstrong 2006: Tiger Woods 2007: Tom Brady 2008: Michael Phelps 2009: Jimmie Johnson 2010: Drew Brees 2011: Aaron Rodgers 2012: Michael Phelps 2013: LeBron James 2014: Madison Bumgarner 2015: Stephen Curry 2016: LeBron James 2017: José Altuve 2018: LeBron James vte Sports Illustrated Sportsperson of the Year 1954: Roger Bannister 1955: Johnny Podres 1956: Bobby Morrow 1957: Stan Musial 1958: Rafer Johnson 1959: Ingemar Johansson 1960: Arnold Palmer 1961: Jerry Lucas 1962: Terry Baker 1963: Pete Rozelle 1964: Ken Venturi 1965: Sandy Koufax 1966: Jim Ryun 1967: Carl Yastrzemski 1968: Bill Russell 1969: Tom Seaver 1970: Bobby Orr 1971: Lee Trevino 1972: Billie Jean King & John Wooden 1973: Jackie Stewart 1974: Muhammad Ali 1975: Pete Rose 1976: Chris Evert 1977: Steve Cauthen 1978: Jack Nicklaus 1979: Terry Bradshaw & Willie Stargell 1980: U.S. Olympic Hockey Team 1981: Sugar Ray Leonard 1982: Wayne Gretzky 1983: Mary Decker 1984: Edwin Moses & Mary Lou Retton 1985: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 1986: Joe Paterno 1987: Bob Bourne, Judi Brown King, Kipchoge Keino, Dale Murphy, Chip Rives, Patty Sheehan, Rory Sparrow, & Reggie Williams 1988: Orel Hershiser 1989: Greg LeMond 1990: Joe Montana 1991: Michael Jordan 1992: Arthur Ashe 1993: Don Shula 1994: Bonnie Blair & Johann Olav Koss 1995: Cal Ripken Jr. 1996: Tiger Woods 1997: Dean Smith 1998: Mark McGwire & Sammy Sosa 1999: U.S. Women's Soccer Team 2000: Tiger Woods 2001: Curt Schilling & Randy Johnson 2002: Lance Armstrong 2003: David Robinson & Tim Duncan 2004: Boston Red Sox 2005: Tom Brady 2006: Dwyane Wade 2007: Brett Favre 2008: Michael Phelps 2009: Derek Jeter 2010: Drew Brees 2011: Mike Krzyzewski & Pat Summitt 2012: LeBron James 2013: Peyton Manning 2014: Madison Bumgarner 2015: Serena Williams 2016: LeBron James 2017: José Altuve & J. J. Watt 2018: Golden State Warriors vte Best Male Athlete ESPY Award winners 1993: Jordan 1994: Bonds 1995: Young 1996: Ripken Jr. 1997: Johnson 1998: Woods / Griffey Jr. 1999: McGwire 2000: Woods 2001: Woods 2002: Woods 2003: Armstrong 2004: Armstrong 2005: Armstrong 2006: Armstrong 2007: Tomlinson 2008: Woods 2009: Phelps 2010: Brees 2011: Nowitzki 2012: James 2013: James 2014: Durant 2015: Curry 2016: James 2017: Westbrook 2018: Ovechkin 2019: Antetokounmpo vte Laureus World Sports Award for Sportsman of the Year 2000–01: Tiger Woods 2002: Michael Schumacher 2003: Lance Armstrong* 2004: Michael Schumacher 2005–08: Roger Federer 2009–10: Usain Bolt 2011: Rafael Nadal 2012: Novak Djokovic 2013: Usain Bolt 2014: Sebastian Vettel 2015–16: Novak Djokovic 2017: Usain Bolt 2018: Roger Federer 2019: Novak Djokovic vte PGA Tour FedEx Cup Playoff events The Northern Trust BMW Championship Tour Championship Dell Technologies Championship (2007–2018) Seasons and winners 2007: Tiger Woods 2008: Vijay Singh 2009: Tiger Woods 2010: Jim Furyk 2011: Bill Haas 2012: Brandt Snedeker 2013: Henrik Stenson 2014: Billy Horschel 2015: Jordan Spieth 2016: Rory McIlroy 2017: Justin Thomas 2018: Justin Rose Point distributions Current Former Awards and achievements Preceded by United States Maurice Greene BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year 2000 Succeeded by Croatia Goran Ivanišević Preceded by United States Andre Agassi L'Équipe Champion of Champions 2000 Succeeded by Germany Michael Schumacher Authority control Edit this at Wikidata BIBSYS: 1097347 BNE: XX1083888 BNF: cb13323178f (data) CiNii: DA13357219 GND: 119501562 ISNI: 0000 0001 1494 6380 LCCN: n95039225 NDL: 00649830 NKC: xx0010570 NLA: 49785943 SUDOC: 035588519 VIAF: 85369508 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 85369508 Categories: Tiger Woods1975 birthsLiving peopleAfrican-American BuddhistsAfrican-American golfersAmerican male golfersAmerican people of Dutch descentAmerican people of Dutch-Indonesian descentAmerican philanthropistsAmerican sportspeople of Chinese descentAmerican sportspeople of Thai descentBBC Sports Personality World Sport Star of the Year winnersGolf writers and broadcastersGolfers from CaliforniaLaureus World Sports Awards winnersMen's Career Grand Slam champion golfersPeople from Cypress, CaliforniaPeople from Jupiter Island, FloridaPeople from Windermere, FloridaPeople named in the Panama PapersPGA Tour golfersPresidential Medal of Freedom recipientsRyder Cup competitors for the United StatesSportspeople from Anaheim, CaliforniaStanford Cardinal men's golfersWinners of men's major golf championships Golf Highest governing body R&A USGA International Golf Federation First played 15th century, Kingdom of Scotland Characteristics Contact No Type Outdoor Equipment Golf clubs, golf balls, and others Glossary Glossary of golf Presence Olympic 1900, 1904, 2016,[1] 2020[2] Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game. The game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, often having nine holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches (11 cm) in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough (long grass), bunkers (or "sand traps"), and various hazards (water, rocks) but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, but most especially at the elite level. The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, and the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship, also known as the British Open, which was first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland. This is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U.S. Open, and the PGA Championship. Origin and history Main article: History of golf The MacDonald boys playing golf, attributed to William Mosman. 18th century, National Galleries of Scotland. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians[3] trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game.[4] Others cite chuiwan (捶丸; "chui" means striking and "wan" means small ball)[5] as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.[6] A Ming Dynasty scroll by the artist Youqiu dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.[5] The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.[7] Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England and chambot in France.[7] The Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven (a game involving a ball and curved bats) was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. Four gentlemen golfers on the tee of a golf course, 1930s Female golfer in a competition in Spain in 1915. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery.[8] James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with".[9] To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[10] In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes.[11] Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.[12][13] The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played at Leith, Scotland.[14] The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors.[15] Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U.S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.[16] Golf course Aerial view of the Golfplatz Wittenbeck in Mecklenburg, Germany Main article: Golf course A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground that is set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin (normally a flagstick) and cup. The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice; this is called a "double dogleg". A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes.[17][18] Early Scottish golf courses were primarily laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches.[19] This gave rise to the term "golf links", particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892. The course is still there today.[20] Play of the game 1=teeing ground, 2=water hazard, 3=rough, 4=out of bounds, 5=sand bunker, 6=water hazard, 7=fairway, 8=putting green, 9=flagstick, 10=hole Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. Each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typical group playing will have 1-4 people playing the round. The typical amount of time required for pace of play for a 9-hole round is two hours and four hours for an 18-hole round. Playing a hole on a golf course is initiated by putting a ball into play by striking it with a club on the teeing ground (also called the tee box, or simply the tee). For this first shot on each hole, it is allowed but not required for the golfer to place the ball on a tee prior to striking it. A tee is a small peg that can be used to elevate the ball slightly above the ground up to a few centimetres high. Tees are commonly made of wood but may be constructed of any material, including plastic. Traditionally, golfers used mounds of sand to elevate the ball, and containers of sand were provided for the purpose. A few courses still require sand to be used instead of peg tees, to reduce litter and reduce damage to the teeing ground. Tees help reduce the interference of the ground or grass on the movement of the club making the ball easier to hit, and also places the ball in the very centre of the striking face of the club (the "sweet spot") for better distance. When the initial shot on a hole is intended to move the ball a long distance, typically more than 225 yards (210 m), the shot is commonly called a "drive" and is generally made with a long-shafted, large-headed wood club called a "driver". Shorter holes may be initiated with other clubs, such as higher-numbered woods or irons. Once the ball comes to rest, the golfer strikes it again as many times as necessary using shots that are variously known as a "lay-up", an "approach", a "pitch", or a "chip", until the ball reaches the green, where he or she then "putts" the ball into the hole (commonly called "sinking the putt" or "holing out"). The goal of getting the ball into the hole ("holing" the ball) in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by obstacles such as areas of longer grass called "rough" (usually found alongside fairways), which both slows any ball that contacts it and makes it harder to advance a ball that has stopped on it; "doglegs", which are changes in the direction of the fairway that often require shorter shots to play around them; bunkers (or sand traps); and water hazards such as ponds or streams.[17] In stroke play competitions played according to strict rules, each player plays his or her ball until it is holed no matter how many strokes that may take. In match play it is acceptable to simply pick up one's ball and "surrender the hole" after enough strokes have been made by a player that it is mathematically impossible for the player to win the hole. It is also acceptable in informal stroke play to surrender the hole after hitting three strokes more than the "par" rating of the hole (a "triple bogey" - see below); while technically a violation of Rule 3-2, this practice speeds play as a courtesy to others, and avoids "runaway scores", excessive frustration and injuries caused by overexertion. The total distance from the first tee box to the 18th green can be quite long; total yardages "through the green" can be in excess of 7,000 yards (6.4 km), and when adding in the travel distance between the green of one hole and the tee of the next, even skilled players may easily travel five miles (8 km) or more during a round. At some courses, electric golf carts are used to travel between shots, which can speed-up play and allows participation by individuals unable to walk a whole round. On other courses players generally walk the course, either carrying their bag using a shoulder strap or using a "golf trolley" for their bag. These trolleys may or may not be battery assisted. At many amateur tournaments including U.S. high school and college play, players are required to walk and to carry their own bags, but at the professional and top amateur level, as well as at high-level private clubs, players may be accompanied by caddies, who carry and manage the players' equipment and who are allowed by the rules to give advice on the play of the course.[21] A caddie's advice can only be given to the player or players for whom the caddie is working, and not to other competing players. Rules and regulations Main article: Rules of golf Arnold Palmer in 1953 The rules of golf are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by The R&A, spun off in 2004 from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (founded 1754), and the United States Golf Association (USGA).[22][23] The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: Play the ball as it lies, play the course as you find it, and if you cannot do either, do what is fair. There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.[24] Essentially, anybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction, or played golf for money, is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. However, amateur golfers may receive expenses that comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status. In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called golf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, pace of play, and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience. Penalties Main article: Penalty (golf) Penalties are incurred in certain situations. They are counted towards a player's score as if there were extra swing(s) at the ball. Strokes are added for rule infractions or for hitting one's ball into an unplayable situation. A lost ball or a ball hit out of bounds result in a penalty of one stroke and distance (Rule 27–1). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a player's equipment causes the ball to move or the removal of a loose impediment causes the ball to move (Rule 18–2). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a player's ball results into a red or yellow staked hazard (Rule 26). If a golfer makes a stroke at the wrong ball (Rule 19–2) or hits a fellow golfer's ball with a putt (Rule 19–5), the player incurs a two-stroke penalty. Most rule infractions lead to stroke penalties but also can lead to disqualification. Disqualification could be from cheating, signing for a lower score, or from rule infractions that lead to improper play.[25] Equipment Main article: Golf equipment A wood positioned ready to be swung and to strike a golf ball Golf clubs are used to hit the golf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance (or "grip") on the top end and a club head on the bottom. Long clubs, which have a lower amount of degree loft, are those meant to propel the ball a comparatively longer distance, and short clubs a higher degree of loft and a comparatively shorter distance. The actual physical length of each club is longer or shorter, depending on the distance the club is intended to propel the ball. Golf clubs have traditionally been arranged into three basic types. Woods are large-headed, long-shafted clubs meant to propel the ball a long distance from relatively "open" lies, such as the tee box and fairway. Of particular importance is the driver or "1-wood", which is the lowest lofted wood club, and in modern times has become highly specialized for making extremely long-distance tee shots, up to 300 yards (270 m), or more, in a professional golfer's hands. Traditionally these clubs had heads made of a hardwood, hence the name, but virtually all modern woods are now made of metal such as titanium, or of composite materials. Irons are shorter-shafted clubs with a metal head primarily consisting of a flat, angled striking face. Traditionally the clubhead was forged from iron; modern iron clubheads are investment-cast from a steel alloy. Irons of varying loft are used for a variety of shots from virtually anywhere on the course, but most often for shorter-distance shots approaching the green, or to get the ball out of tricky lies such as sand traps. The third class is the putter, which evolved from the irons to create a low-lofted, balanced club designed to roll the ball along the green and into the hole. Putters are virtually always used on the green or in the surrounding rough/fringe. A fourth class, called hybrids, evolved as a cross between woods and irons, and are typically seen replacing the low-lofted irons with a club that provides similar distance, but a higher launch angle and a more forgiving nature. A maximum of 14 clubs is allowed in a player's bag at one time during a stipulated round. The choice of clubs is at the golfer's discretion, although every club must be constructed in accordance with parameters outlined in the rules. (Clubs that meet these parameters are usually called "conforming".) Violation of these rules can result in disqualification. The exact shot hit at any given time on a golf course, and which club is used to accomplish the shot, are always completely at the discretion of the golfer; in other words, there is no restriction whatsoever on which club a golfer may or may not use at any time for any shot. Golf balls are spherical, usually white (although other colours are allowed), and minutely pock-marked by dimples that decrease aerodynamic drag by increasing air turbulence around the ball in motion, which delays "boundary layer" separation and reduces the drag-inducing "wake" behind the ball, thereby allowing the ball to fly farther.[26] The combination of a soft "boundary layer" and a hard "core" enables both distance and spin. A tee is allowed only for the first stroke on each hole, unless the player must hit a provisional tee shot or replay his or her first shot from the tee. Many golfers wear golf shoes with metal or plastic spikes designed to increase traction, thus allowing for longer and more accurate shots. A golf bag is used to transport golf clubs and the player's other or personal equipment. Golf bags have several pockets designed for carrying equipment and supplies such as tees, balls, and gloves. Golf bags can be carried, pulled on a trolley or harnessed to a motorized golf cart during play. Golf bags have both a hand strap and shoulder strap for carrying, and sometimes have retractable legs that allow the bag to stand upright when at rest. Stroke mechanics A golfer takes an approach shot on the fairway. Main article: Golf stroke mechanics The golf swing is outwardly similar to many other motions involving swinging a tool or playing implement, such as an axe or a baseball bat. However, unlike many of these motions, the result of the swing is highly dependent on several sub-motions being properly aligned and timed. These ensure that the club travels up to the ball in line with the desired path; that the clubface is in line with the swing path; and that the ball hits the centre or "sweet spot" of the clubface. The ability to do this consistently, across a complete set of clubs with a wide range of shaft lengths and clubface areas, is a key skill for any golfer, and takes a significant effort to achieve. Golfers start with the non-dominant side of the body facing the target (for a right-hander, the target is to their left). At address, the player's body and the centerline of the club face are positioned parallel to the desired line of travel, with the feet either perpendicular to that line or slightly splayed outward. The feet are commonly shoulder-width apart for middle irons and putters, narrower for short irons and wider for long irons and woods. The ball is typically positioned more to the "front" of the player's stance (closer to the leading foot) for lower-lofted clubs, with the usual ball position for a drive being just behind the arch of the leading foot. The ball is placed further "back" in the player's stance (toward the trailing foot) as the loft of the club to be used increases. Most iron shots and putts are made with the ball roughly centered in the stance, while a few mid- and short-iron shots are made with the ball slightly behind the centre of the stance to ensure consistent contact between the ball and clubface, so the ball is on its way before the club continues down into the turf. The golfer chooses a golf club, grip, and stroke appropriate to the distance: The "drive" or "full swing" is used on the teeing ground and fairway, typically with a wood or long iron, to produce the maximum distance capable with the club. In the extreme, the windup can end with the shaft of the club parallel to the ground above the player's shoulders. The "approach" or "3/4 swing" is used in medium- and long-distance situations where an exact distance and good accuracy is preferable to maximum possible distance, such as to place the ball on the green or "lay up" in front of a hazard. The windup or "backswing" of such a shot typically ends up with the shaft of the club pointing straight upwards or slightly towards the player. The "chip" or "half-swing" is used for relatively short-distance shots near the green, with high-lofted irons and wedges. The goal of the chip is to land the ball safely on the green, allowing it to roll out towards the hole. It can also be used from other places to accurately position the ball into a more advantageous lie. The backswing typically ends with the head of the club between hip and head height. The "putt" is used in short-distance shots on or near the green, typically made with the eponymous "putter", although similar strokes can be made with medium to high-numbered irons to carry a short distance in the air and then roll (a "bump and run"). The backswing and follow-through of the putt are both abbreviated compared to other strokes, with the head of the club rarely rising above the knee. The goal of the putt is usually to put the ball in the hole, although a long-distance putt may be called a "lag" and is made with the primary intention of simply closing distance to the hole or otherwise placing the ball advantageously. Having chosen a club and stroke to produce the desired distance, the player addresses the ball by taking their stance to the side of it and (except when the ball lies in a hazard) grounding the club behind the ball. The golfer then takes their backswing, rotating the club, their arms and their upper body away from the ball, and then begins their swing, bringing the clubhead back down and around to hit the ball. A proper golf swing is a complex combination of motions, and slight variations in posture or positioning can make a great deal of difference in how well the ball is hit and how straight it travels. The general goal of a player making a full swing is to propel the clubhead as fast as possible while maintaining a single "plane" of motion of the club and clubhead, to send the clubhead into the ball along the desired path of travel and with the clubhead also pointing that direction. Accuracy and consistency are typically stressed over pure distance. A player with a straight drive that travels only 220 yards (200 m) will nevertheless be able to accurately place the ball into a favourable lie on the fairway, and can make up for the lesser distance of any given club by simply using "more club" (a lower loft) on their tee shot or on subsequent fairway and approach shots. However, a golfer with a drive that may go 280 yards (260 m) but often doesn't fly straight will be less able to position their ball advantageously; the ball may "hook", "pull", "draw", "fade", "push" or "slice" off the intended line and land out of bounds or in the rough or hazards, and thus the player will require many more strokes to hole out. Musculature A golf stroke uses the muscles of the core (especially erector spinae muscles and latissimus dorsi muscle when turning), hamstring, shoulder, and wrist. Stronger muscles in the wrist can prevent them from being twisted during swings, whilst stronger shoulders increase the turning force. Weak wrists can also transmit the force to elbows and even neck and lead to injury. (When a muscle contracts, it pulls equally from both ends and, to have movement at only one end of the muscle, other muscles must come into play to stabilize the bone to which the other end of the muscle is attached.) Golf is a unilateral exercise that can break body balances, requiring exercises to keep the balance in muscles.[27][28] Types of putting Putting is considered to be the most important component of the game of golf. As the game of golf has evolved, there have been many different putting techniques and grips that have been devised to give golfers the best chance to make putts. When the game originated, golfers would putt with their dominate hand on the bottom of the grip and their weak hand on top of the grip. This grip and putting style is known as "conventional". There are many variations of conventional including overlap, where the golfer overlaps the off hand index finger onto off the dominant pinky; interlock, where the offhand index finger interlocks with the dominant pinky and ring finger; double or triple overlap and so on.[29] Recently, "cross handed" putting has become a popular trend amongst professional golfers and amateurs. Cross handed putting is the idea that the dominant hand is on top of the grip where the weak hand is on the bottom. This grip restricts the motion in your dominant hand and eliminates the possibility of wrist breakdowns through the putting stroke.[30] Other notable putting styles include "the claw", a style that has the grip directly in between the thumb and index finger of the dominant hand while the palm faces the target.[31] The weak hand placed normally on the putter. Anchored putting, a style that requires a longer putter shaft that can be anchored into the players stomach or below the chin; the idea is to stabilize one end of the putter thus creating a more consistent pendulum stroke. This style will be banned in 2016 on the professional circuits.[32] Scoring and handicapping Par Main article: Par (score) A par-3 hole in Phoenician Golf Club, Scottsdale, Arizona A marker stone indicating that this hole is a par-5 hole A hole is classified by its par, meaning the number of strokes a skilled golfer should require to complete play of the hole.[17] The minimum par of any hole is 3 because par always includes a stroke for the tee shot and two putts. Pars of 4 and 5 strokes are ubiquitous on golf courses; more rarely, a few courses feature par-6 and even par-7 holes. Strokes other than the tee shot and putts are expected to be made from the fairway; for example, a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par-4 hole in two strokes—one from the tee (the "drive") and another, second, stroke to the green (the "approach")—and then roll the ball into the hole in two putts for par. Putting the ball on the green with two strokes remaining for putts is called making "green in regulation" or GIR.[33] Missing a GIR does not necessarily mean a golfer will not make par, but it does make doing so more difficult as it reduces the number of putts available; conversely, making a GIR does not guarantee a par, as the player might require three or more putts to "hole out". Professional golfers typically make between 60% and 70% of greens in regulation.[34] The primary factor for classifying the par of a relatively straight, hazard-free hole is the distance from the tee to the green, and they can vary between tournament play and casual play. A typical casual play par-3 hole is less than 250 yards (230 m) in length, with a par-4 hole ranging between 251–450 yards (230–411 m), and a par-5 hole being longer than 450 yards (410 m). The rare par-6s can stretch well over 650 yards (590 m). These distances are based on the typical scratch golfer's drive distance of between 240 and 280 yards (220 and 260 m); a green further than the average player's drive will require additional shots from the fairway. However, other considerations must be taken into account; the key question is "how many strokes would a scratch golfer take to make the green by playing along the fairway?". The grade of the land from the tee to the hole might increase or decrease the carry and rolling distance of shots as measured linearly along the ground. Sharp turns or hazards may require golfers to "lay up" on the fairway in order to change direction or hit over the hazard with their next shot. These design considerations will affect how even a scratch golfer would play the hole, irrespective of total distance from tee to green, and must be included in a determination of par.[35] However, a par score never includes "expected" penalty strokes, as a scratch player is never "expected" to hit a ball into a water hazard or other unplayable situation. So the placement of hazards only affect par when considering how a scratch golfer would avoid them. Eighteen-hole courses typically total to an overall par score of 72 for a complete round; this is based on an average par of 4 for every hole, and so is often arrived at by designing a course with an equal number of par-5 and par-3 holes, the rest being par-4. Many combinations exist that total to par-72, and other course pars exist from 68 up to 76, and are not less worthy than courses of par-72. Additionally, in some countries including the United States, courses are classified according to their play difficulty, which may be used to calculate a golfer's playing handicap for a given course.[36] The two primary difficulty ratings in the U.S. are the Course Rating, which is effectively the expected score for a zero-handicap "scratch golfer" playing the course (and may differ from the course par), and the Slope Rating, which is a measure of how much worse a "bogey golfer" (with an 18 handicap) would be expected to play than a "scratch golfer". These two numbers are available for any USGA-sanctioned course, and are used in a weighted system to calculate handicaps (see below). The overall par score in a tournament is the summation of all the par scores in each round. A typical four-round professional tournament played on a par-72 course has a tournament par of 288. Scoring The goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible. A golfer's number of strokes in a hole, course, or tournament is compared to its respective par score, and is then reported either as the number that the golfer was "under-" or "over-par", or if it was "equal to par". A hole in one (or an "ace") occurs when a golfer sinks their ball into the cup with their first stroke from the tee. Common scores for a hole also have specific terms.[17] Numeric term Name Definition −4 Condor four strokes under par −3 Albatross (Double Eagle) three strokes under par −2 Eagle two strokes under par −1 Birdie one stroke under par E Par equal to par +1 Bogey one stroke over par +2 Double bogey two strokes over par +3 Triple bogey three strokes over par In a typical professional tournament or among "scratch" amateur players, "birdie-bogey" play is common; a player will "lose" a stroke by bogeying a hole, then "gain" one by scoring a birdie. Eagles are uncommon but not rare; however, only 18 players have scored an albatross in a men's major championship. Basic forms of golf There are two basic forms of golf play, match play and stroke play. Stroke play is more popular. Match play Two players (or two teams) play each hole as a separate contest against each other in what is called match play. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (or tied). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over and the winning party is deemed to have won "6 & 5". At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the party leading the match is said to be "dormie", and the match is continued until the party increases the lead by one hole or ties any of the remaining holes, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie with the lead player's opponent winning all remaining holes. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead.[17] Stroke play The score achieved for each and every hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins in stroke play. Stroke play is the game most commonly played by professional golfers. If there is a tie after the regulation number of holes in a professional tournament, a playoff takes place between all tied players. Playoffs either are sudden death or employ a pre-determined number of holes, anywhere from three to a full 18. In sudden death, a player who scores lower on a hole than all of his opponents wins the match. If at least two players remain tied after such a playoff using a pre-determined number of holes, then play continues in sudden death format, where the first player to win a hole wins the tournament. Other forms of play The other forms of play in the game of golf are bogey competition, skins, 9-points, stableford, team play, and unofficial team variations. Bogey competition A bogey competition is a scoring format sometimes seen in informal tournaments. Its scoring is similar to match play, except each player compares their hole score to the hole's par rating instead of the score of another player. The player "wins" the hole if they score a birdie or better, they "lose" the hole if they score a bogey or worse, and they "halve" the hole by scoring par. By recording only this simple win-loss-halve score on the sheet, a player can shrug off a very poorly-played hole with a simple "-" mark and move on. As used in competitions, the player or pair with the best win-loss "differential" wins the competition. Skins The Skins Game is a variation on the match play where each hole has an amount of money (called "skin") attached to it. The lump sum may be prize money at the professional level (the most famous event to use these rules was the "LG Skins Game", played at Indian Wells Golf Resort in California until 2008), or an amount wagered for each hole among amateur players. The player with the lowest score on the hole wins the skin for that hole; if two or more players tie for the lowest score, the skin carries over to the next hole. The game continues until a player wins a hole outright, which may (and evidently often does) result in a player receiving money for a previous hole that they had not tied for. If players tie the 18th hole, either all players or only the tying players repeat the 18th hole until an outright winner is decided for that hole—and all undecided skins. 9-Points A nine-point game is another variant of match play typically played among threesomes, where each hole is worth a total of nine points. The player with the lowest score on a hole receives five points, the next-lowest score 3 and the next-lowest score 1. Ties are generally resolved by summing the points contested and dividing them among the tying players; a two-way tie for first is worth four points to both players, a two-way tie for second is worth two points to both players, and a three-way tie is worth three points to each player. The player with the highest score after 18 holes (in which there are 162 points to be awarded) wins the game. This format can be used to wager on the game systematically; players each contribute the same amount of money to the pot, and a dollar value is assigned to each point scored (or each point after 18) based on the amount of money in the pot, with any overage going to the overall winner.[37][38] Stableford The Stableford system is a simplification of stroke play that awards players points based on their score relative to the hole's par; the score for a hole is calculated by taking the par score, adding 2, then subtracting the player's hole score, making the result zero if negative. Alternately stated, a double bogey or worse is zero points, a bogey is worth one point, par is two, a birdie three, an eagle four, and so on. The advantages of this system over stroke play are a more natural "higher is better" scoring, the ability to compare Stableford scores between plays on courses with different total par scores (scoring an "even" in stroke play will always give a Stableford score of 36), discouraging the tendency to abandon the entire game after playing a particularly bad hole (a novice playing by strict rules may score as high as an 8 or 10 on a single difficult hole; their Stableford score for the hole would be zero, which puts them only two points behind par no matter how badly they played), and the ability to simply pick up one's ball once it is impossible to score any points for the hole, which speeds play. The USGA and R&A sanction a "Modified Stableford" system for scratch players, which makes par worth zero, a birdie worth 2, eagle 5 and double-eagle 8, while a bogey is a penalty of −1 and a double-bogey or worse −3. As with the original system, the highest score wins the game, and terrible scores on one or two holes won't wreck an entire game, but this system rewards "bogey-birdie" play more than the original, encouraging golfers to try to make the riskier birdie putt or eagle chipshot instead of simply parring each hole.[17] Team play Junín Golf Club, in Junín, Argentina Foursome: defined in Rule 29, this is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. For example, if players "A" and "B" form a team, "A" tees off on the first hole, "B" will play the second shot, "A" the third, and so on until the hole is finished. On the second hole, "B" will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then "A" plays the second shot, and so on. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play.[39] Fourball: defined in Rules 30 and 31, this is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays their own ball and for each team, the lower score on each hole counts. Fourballs can be played as match play or stroke play.[40] Unofficial team variations Scramble: also known as ambrose or best-shot; each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best. Every player then plays their second shot from within a clublength of where the best shot has come to rest (and no closer to the hole), and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished. This system is very common at informal tournaments such as for charity, as it speeds play (due to the reduced number of shots taken from bad lies), allows teams of varying sizes, and allows players of widely varying skill levels to participate without profoundly affecting team score. Champagne scramble: a combination of a scramble and best-ball, only the first shot of each hole is a scramble; all players tee off, decide on the best tee shot, then each player plays their own ball starting at that point until they hole out, without deciding any further "best shots". The best score amongst the team's players is counted.[41] Better ball or best-ball: like fourball, each player plays the hole as normal, but the lowest score of all the players on the team counts as the team's score for the hole.[42] Greensome (also known as Scotch Foursomes): also called modified alternate shot, this is played in pairs; both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. The play then alternates as in a foursome.[43] A variant of greensome is sometimes played where the opposing team chooses which of their opponent's tee shots the opponents should use. The player who did not shoot the chosen first shot plays the second shot. Play then continues as a greensome. Wolf (also known as Ship, Captain & Crew, Captain, Pig): a version of match play; with a foursome an order of play for each player is established for the duration of the round. The first player hits a ball from the tee, then waits for each successive player to hit (2nd, 3rd and 4th). After each player hits the 1st player has the option of choosing a partner for the hole (the 1st player is the Wolf for that hole) usually by calling Wolf before the next player hits. Once a partner is picked, each two-some (the Wolf and his or her partner vs the remaining two players) scores their total strokes and the winning two-some is awarded 1-point each for winning a hole and zero points for tying. The next hole, the rotation moves forward (e.g. the 2nd player is now hitting 1st and the Wolf and the previous Wolf hits last). A Wolf can decide to go alone to win extra points, but they must beat all other players in stroke play on that hole. If alone, the Wolf is awarded 2-points for going alone after everyone has hit or 4 points for declaring Lone Wolf before anyone else hits. If the Lone Wolf loses, to even one player, the 3 other players get 1-point each. The winner is the player with the most points at the end of the round. Strategically, care must be taken not to let a low-handicap player run away with all the points by being constantly paired with the Wolf.[44],[45] Shotgun starts are mainly used for amateur tournament play. In this variant, each of the groups playing starts their game on a different hole, allowing for all players to start and end their round at roughly the same time. All 18 holes are still played, but a player or foursome may, for instance, start on hole 5, play through to the 18th hole, then continue with hole 1 and end on hole 4. This speeds the completion of the entire event as players are not kept waiting for progressive tee times at the first hole. This form of play, as a minor variation to stroke or match play, is neither defined nor disallowed by strict rules and so is used according to local rules for an event. Handicap systems Main article: Handicap (golf) A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability to play golf over the course of 18 holes. A player's handicap generally represents the number of strokes above par that the player will make over the course of an above-average round of golf. The better the player the lower their handicap is. Someone with a handicap of 0 or less is often called a scratch golfer, and would typically score or beat the course par on a round of play (depending on course difficulty). Calculating a handicap is often complicated, the general reason being that golf courses are not uniformly challenging from course to course or between skill levels. A player scoring even par on Course A might average four over par on course B, while a player averaging 20 over par on course A might average only 16 over on course B. So, to the "scratch golfer", Course B is more difficult, but to the "bogey golfer", Course A is more difficult. The reasons for this are inherent in the types of challenges presented by the same course to both golfers. Distance is often a problem for amateur "bogey" golfers with slower swing speeds, who get less distance with each club, and so typically require more shots to get to the green, raising their score compared to a scratch golfer with a stronger swing. However, courses are often designed with hazard placement to mitigate this advantage, forcing the scratch player to "lay up" to avoid bunkers or water, while the bogey golfer is more or less unaffected as the hazard lies out of their range. Finally, terrain features and fairway maintenance can affect golfers of all skill levels; narrowing the fairway by adding obstacles or widening the rough on each side will typically increase the percentage of shots made from disadvantageous lies, increasing the challenge for all players. By USGA rules, handicap calculation first requires calculating a "Handicap Differential" for each round of play the player has completed by strict rules. That in itself is a function of the player's "gross adjusted score" (adjustments can be made to mitigate various deviations either from strict rules or from a player's normal capabilities, for handicap purposes only) and two course-specific difficulty ratings: the Course Rating, a calculated expected score for a hypothetical "scratch golfer": and the Slope Rating, a number based on how much worse a hypothetical 20-handicap "bogey golfer" would score compared to the "scratch golfer". The average Slope Rating of all USGA-rated courses as of 2012 is 113, which also factors into the Differential computation. The most recent Differentials are logged, up to 20 of them, and then the best of these (the number used depends on the number available) are selected, averaged, multiplied by .96 (an "excellence factor" that reduces the handicap of higher-scoring players, encouraging them to play better and thus lower their handicap), and truncated to the tenths place to produce the "Handicap Index". Additional calculations can be used to place higher significance on a player's recent tournament scores. A player's Handicap Index is then multiplied by the Slope Rating of the course to be played, divided by the average Slope Rating of 113, then rounded to the nearest integer to produce the player's Course Handicap. Once calculated, the Course Handicap is applied in stroke play by simply reducing the player's gross score by the handicap, to produce a net score. So, a gross score of 96 with a handicap of 22 would produce a net score of 74. In match play, the lower handicap is subtracted from the higher handicap, and the resulting handicap strokes are awarded to the higher handicapper by distributing them among the holes according to each hole's difficulty; holes are ranked on the scorecard from 1 to 18 (or however many holes are available), and one stroke is applied to each hole from the most difficult to the least difficult. So, if one player has a 9 handicap and another has a 25 handicap, the 25-handicap player receives one handicap stroke on each of the most difficult 16 holes (25-9). If the 25-handicapper were playing against a "scratch golfer" (zero handicap), all 25 strokes would be distributed, first by applying one stroke to each hole, then applying the remaining strokes, one each, to the most difficult 7 holes; so, the handicap player would subtract 2 strokes from each of the most difficult 7 holes, and 1 each from the remaining 11. Handicap systems have potential for abuse by players who may intentionally play badly to increase their handicap ("throwing their 'cap") before playing to their potential at an important event with a valuable prize. For this reason, professional golf associations do not use them, but they can be calculated and used along with other criteria to determine the relative strengths of various professional players. Touring professionals, being the best of the best, often have negative handicaps; they can be expected, on average, to score lower than the Course Rating on any course. Popularity Part of a golf course in western India An aerial view of a golf course in Italy In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that the countries with most golf courses per capita, in order, were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with fewer than 500,000 people were excluded). The number of courses in other territories has increased, an example of this being the expansion of golf in China. The first golf course in China opened in 1984, but by the end of 2009 there were roughly 600 in the country. For much of the 21st century, development of new golf courses in China has been officially banned (with the exception of the island province of Hainan), but the number of courses had nonetheless tripled from 2004 to 2009; the "ban" has been evaded with the government's tacit approval simply by not mentioning golf in any development plans.[46] In the United States, the number of people who play golf twenty-five times or more per year decreased from 6.9 million in 2000 to 4.6 million in 2005,[47] according to the National Golf Foundation. The NGF reported that the number who played golf at all decreased from 30 to 26 million over the same period.[47] In February 1971, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first person to golf anywhere other than Earth. He smuggled a golf club and two golf balls on board Apollo 14 with the intent to golf on the Moon. He attempted two drives. He shanked the first attempt, but it is estimated his second went more than 200 yards (180 m).[48] Golf courses worldwide Number of golf courses by country in 2015. Below are the top 18 countries that have the most golf courses.[49] Country Number of courses % USA 15,372 45% Japan 2,383 7% Canada 2,363 7% England 2,084 6% Australia 1,628 5% Germany 747 2% France 648 2% Scotland 552 2% South Africa 512 2% Sweden 491 1% China 473 1% Ireland 472 1% South Korea 447 1% Spain 437 1% New Zealand 418 1% Argentina 319 1% Italy 285 1% India 270 1% Rest of the world 4,110 12% Total 34,011 Professional golf Main article: Professional golfer The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals ("pros"), and only compete in local competitions. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full-time on international "tours". Many club and teaching professionals working in the golf industry start as caddies or with a general interest in the game, finding employment at golf courses and eventually moving on to certifications in their chosen profession. These programs include independent institutions and universities, and those that eventually lead to a Class A golf professional certification. Touring professionals typically start as amateur players, who attain their "pro" status after success in major tournaments that win them either prize money and/or notice from corporate sponsors. Jack Nicklaus, for example, gained widespread notice by finishing second in the 1960 U.S. Open to champion Arnold Palmer, with a 72-hole score of 282 (the best score to date in that tournament by an amateur). He played one more amateur year in 1961, winning that year's U.S. Amateur Championship, before turning pro in 1962. Instruction Indoor putting green for practice and instruction Main article: Golf instruction Golf instruction involves the teaching and learning of the game of golf. Proficiency in teaching golf instruction requires not only technical and physical ability but also knowledge of the rules and etiquette of the game. In some countries, golf instruction is best performed by teachers certified by the Professional Golfers Association. Some top instructors who work with professional golfers have become quite well known in their own right. Professional golf instructors can use physical conditioning, mental visualization, classroom sessions, club fitting, driving range instruction, on-course play under real conditions, and review of videotaped swings in slow motion to teach golf to prepare the golfer for the course. Golf tours Main article: Professional golf tours There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organization, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in most of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it. Gary Player is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of golf. Perhaps the most widely known tour is the PGA Tour, which tends to attract the strongest fields, outside the four Majors and the four World Golf Championships events. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA Tour events have a first prize of at least 800,000 USD. The European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks second to the PGA Tour in worldwide prestige. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA Tour and European Tour. Since 2010, both tours' money titles have been claimed by the same individual three times, with Luke Donald doing so in 2011 and Rory McIlroy in 2012 and 2014. In 2013, Henrik Stenson won the FedEx Cup points race on the PGA Tour and the European Tour money title, but did not top the PGA Tour money list (that honour going to Tiger Woods). The other leading men's tours include the Japan Golf Tour, the Asian Tour (Asia outside Japan), the PGA Tour of Australasia, and the Sunshine Tour (for southern Africa, primarily South Africa). The Japan, Australasian, Sunshine, PGA, and European Tours are the charter members of the trade body of the world's main tours, the International Federation of PGA Tours, founded in 1996. The Asian Tour became a full member in 1999. The Canadian Tour became an associate member of the Federation in 2000, and the Tour de las Américas (Latin America) became an associate member of the Federation in 2007. The Federation underwent a major expansion in 2009 that saw eleven new tours become full members – the Canadian Tour, Tour de las Américas, China Golf Association, the Korea Professional Golfers' Association, Professional Golf Tour of India, and the operators of all six major women's tours worldwide. The OneAsia Tour, founded in 2009, is not a member of the Federation, but was founded as a joint venture of the Australasia, China, Japan, and Korean tours. In 2011, the Tour de las Américas was effectively taken over by the PGA Tour, and in 2012 was folded into the new PGA Tour Latinoamérica. Also in 2012, the Canadian Tour was renamed PGA Tour Canada after it agreed to be taken over by the PGA Tour. All men's tours that are Federation members, except the India tour, offer points in the Official World Golf Ranking (OWGR) to players who place sufficiently high in their events. The OneAsia Tour also offers ranking points. Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. There are several senior tours for men aged fifty and over, arguably the best known of which is the U.S.-based PGA Tour Champions. There are six principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. The most prestigious of these is the United States-based LPGA Tour. All of the principal tours offer points in the Women's World Golf Rankings for high finishers in their events. All of the leading professional tours for under-50 players have an official developmental tour, in which the leading players at the end of the season will earn a tour card on the main tour for the following season. Examples include the Web.com Tour, which feeds to the PGA Tour, and the Challenge Tour, which is the developmental tour of the European Tour. The Web.com and Challenge Tours also offer OWGR points. Men's major championships Lee Westwood pictured making a bunker shot at the 2008 Open Main article: Men's major golf championships The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. In chronological order they are: The Masters, the U.S. Open, The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open) and the PGA Championship.[50] The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, since its inception in 1934. It is the only major championship that is played at the same course each year.[51] The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are played at courses around the United States, while the Open Championship is played at courses around the United Kingdom.[52] Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur. Women's major championships Lorena Ochoa, a retired number one female golfer, pictured here in 2007 Main article: Women's major golf championships Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of majors recognised by the dominant women's tour, the LPGA Tour in the U.S., has changed several times over the years, with the most recent changes occurring in 2001 and 2013. Like the PGA Tour, the (U.S.) LPGA[53] tour long had four majors, but now has five: the ANA Inspiration (previously known by several other names, most recently the Kraft Nabisco Championship), the Women's PGA Championship (previously known as the LPGA Championship),[54] the U.S. Women's Open, the Women's British Open (which replaced the du Maurier Classic as a major in 2001) and The Evian Championship (added as the fifth major in 2013). Only the last two are also recognised as majors by the Ladies European Tour. However, the significance of this is limited, as the LPGA is far more dominant in women's golf than the PGA Tour is in mainstream men's golf. For example, the BBC has been known to use the U.S. definition of "women's majors" without qualifying it. Also, the Ladies' Golf Union, the governing body for women's golf in Great Britain and Ireland, stated on its official website that the Women's British Open was "the only Women's Major to be played outside the U.S."[55] (this was before the elevation of The Evian Championship to major status). For many years, the Ladies European Tour tacitly acknowledged the dominance of the LPGA Tour by not scheduling any of its own events to conflict with the three LPGA majors played in the U.S., but that changed beginning in 2008, when the LET scheduled an event opposite the LPGA Championship. The second-richest women's tour, the LPGA of Japan Tour, does not recognise any of the U.S. LPGA or European majors as it has its own set of majors (historically three, since 2008 four). However, these events attract little notice outside Japan. Senior major championships Main article: Senior major golf championships Senior (aged fifty and over) men's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of senior majors on the U.S.-based PGA Tour Champions has changed over the years, but always by expansion. PGA Tour Champions now recognises five majors: the Senior PGA Championship, The Tradition, the Senior Players Championship, the United States Senior Open, and The Senior (British) Open Championship. Of the five events, the Senior PGA is by far the oldest, having been founded in 1937. The other events all date from the 1980s, when senior golf became a commercial success as the first golf stars of the television era, such as Arnold Palmer and Gary Player, reached the relevant age. The Senior Open Championship was not recognised as a major by PGA Tour Champions until 2003. The European Senior Tour recognises only the Senior PGA and the two Senior Opens as majors. However, PGA Tour Champions is arguably more dominant in global senior golf than the U.S. LPGA is in global women's golf. Olympic Games Main article: Golf at the 2016 Summer Olympics After a 112-year absence from the Olympic Games, golf returned for the 2016 Rio Games.[56] 41 different countries were represented by 120 athletes.[57] Controversy Women It wasn't until 1552 that the first woman golfer played the game. Mary Queen of Scots commissioned St. Andrew's Links.[58] However, it wasn't until the 20th century that women were taken seriously and eventually broke the "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden" rule. Many men saw women as unfit to play the sport due to their lack of strength and ability. In the United States, 1891 was a pivotal year for ladies golf because the Shinnecock Hills nine-hole course was built in Southampton, New York, for women and was the first club to offer membership to women golfers. Four years later, in 1895, The U.S. Golf Association held the first Women's Amateur Championship tournament.[58][59] Just like professional golfer Bobby Jones, Joyce Wethered was considered to be a star in the 1920s.[60] Jones praised Wethered in 1930 after they had played an exhibition against each other. He doubted that there had ever been a better golfer, man or woman.[61] However, Bobby Jones' comment wasn't enough for others to change their views on women golfers. The Royal Liverpool's club refused entry of Sir Henry Cotton's wife into the clubhouse in the late 1940s. The secretary of the club released a statement saying, "No woman ever has entered the clubhouse and, praise God, no woman ever will."[60] However, American golfer and all-around athlete, Babe Zaharias didn't have to enter the clubhouse. She was able to prove herself on the course, going on to become the first American to win the British Women's Amateur title in 1947. The following year she became the first woman to attempt to qualify for the U.S. Open, but her application was rejected by the USGA. They stated that the event was intended to be open to men only.[62] The Ladies Professional Golf Association was formed in 1950 as a way to popularize the sport and provide competitive opportunities for golfers.[60] The competitions were not the same for the men and women. It wasn't until 1972 that U.S. Congress passed the Title IX of the Education Amendments. "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any education program or activities receiving Federal financial assistance."[63] American Renee Powell moved to the UK in the 1970s to further her career, and became the first woman to play in a British men's tournament in 1977.[64] Today, women golfers are still fighting and working hard to have the same opportunities as men golfers. There is still a big pay gap in the USGA. The USGA has a long history of writing bigger checks to winners of the men's U.S. Open than the U.S. Women's Open.[65] International events Golf at the Asian Games Golf at the Pan American Games Golf at the Summer Olympics Golf at the Summer Universiade Ryder Cup Presidents Cup Solheim Cup International Crown Seve Trophy EurAsia Cup Walker Cup Curtis Cup See also Golf portal Glossary of golf Outline of golf Lists of golfers List of golf courses in the United Kingdom Professional Golfers' Association of America Variations of golf References "Olympic sports of the past". Olympic Movement. Retrieved 29 March 2009. Associated Press file (9 October 2009). "Golf, rugby make Olympic roster for 2016, 2020". cleveland.com. Retrieved 23 September 2010. Brasch, Rudolph (1970). How did sports begin?: A look at the origins of man at play. McKay. "paganica (game) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 23 September 2010. Jacques, Martin. (2014). When china rules the world : the end of the western world and the birth of a new global order. Penguin Books. pp. 503–504. ISBN 9781101151457. OCLC 883334381. "Golf (Chui wan) – China culture". Kaleidoscope.cultural-china.com. 25 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2010. McGrath, Charles; McCormick, David; Garrity, John (2006). The ultimate golf book. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-618-71025-6. Retrieved 4 May 2009. History Of Golf Golf Information.info. Andrew Leibs (2004). Sports and Games of the Renaissance. p. 69. Greenwood Publishing Group Cochrane, Alistair (ed) Science and Golf IV: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Page 849. Routledge Forrest L. Richardson (2002). Routing the Golf Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf Journey. p. 46. John Wiley & Sons Links plays into the record books BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2011 "Recognition for the world's oldest links, at last". PGA Tour. 24 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. "Historical Rules of Golf". ruleshistory.com. Retrieved 8 September 2010. The Open Championship – More Scottish than British PGA Tour. Retrieved 23 September 2011 Archived 2 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Ryder Cup: Painting celebrates Dunfermline links to American golf". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2014 Golf. Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007. "Hill den Park – 9 Hole Golf Course". hilden park.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007. "Online Etymology Dictionary definition of the word Links". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 23 September 2010. "Why Does Golf Have 18 Holes?". Retrieved 6 May 2010. Caddie. Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2007. "The Rules of Golf". United States Golf Association. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. "Rules of Golf" (PDF). The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. "Amateur Status". United States Golf Association. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. 2008–2011 Rules of Golf (free download) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Nicholls, David (February 1998). "History of the Golf Club". Retrieved 5 November 2007. John Sitaras (14 November 2013). "Jack Welch's 6 Ways Exercise". Golf Digest (Korean edition). Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2013. John Sitaras (21 November 2013). "George Soros' Exercise". Golf Digest (Korean edition). Retrieved 7 December 2013. "Dave Pelz: Your best way to putt". Golf.com. Retrieved 23 October 2015. "Cross Handed Putting Grip, How It Can Improve Your Stroke". golf-info-guide.com. Retrieved 20 October 2015. "4. Controlling the Yips - PGA Digital Golf Academy". golfacademy.pga.com. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2015. USGA. "Anchored putting" (PDF). United States Golf Association. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Par". About.com. Retrieved 8 November 2007. "Stat – Greens in Regulation Percentage". PGATour. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ – What are the Yardage Guidelines for Par-3s, Par-4s and Par-5s?". About.com. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ: What is Slope Rating?". About.com. Retrieved 8 November 2007. "Nine Points Golf Game". Golf.about.com. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014. "Golf Competition | 9-Point Game". Mulligansoftware.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Foursomes". About.com. Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Fourball". About.com. Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Scramble". About.com. Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Better Ball". About.com. Retrieved 17 April 2012. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Greensome". About.com. Retrieved 25 December 2007. "Rules to the game of Wolf". Retrieved 29 July 2013. Rodriguez, Chi Chi (2002). Chi Chi's Golf Games You Gotta Play. Human Kenetics. ISBN 9780736046312. Retrieved 29 July 2013. Washburn, Dan (6 November 2009). "Olympics makes China major player". ESPN. Retrieved 7 November 2009. Paul Vitello (21 February 2008). "More Americans Are Giving up Golf". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 7 July 2008. "Feb. 6, 1971: Alan Shepard plays golf on the moon". PGA.com. "How many Golf Holes are there in the World? Answer 576,534 - Scottish Golf History". www.scottishgolfhistory.org. Retrieved 22 November 2016. "Future Men`s Major Championships - dates and venues - SuperSport - Golf". www.supersport.com. Retrieved 20 February 2017. "Golf Majors: The Masters Golf Tournament". Sporting-World.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2007. "The Open - Open Venues". www.theopen.com. Retrieved 20 February 2017. There are several bodies known as the "LPGA", each based in a different country or continent. The U.S. LPGA is the only one without a geographic identifier in its name, as it was the first to be founded. Typically, if the term "LPGA" is used without an identifier, it refers to the U.S. body. "PGA of America, LPGA, KPMG join forces for KPMG Women's PGA Championship" (Press release). PGA of America. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. "Women's British Open breaks new ground at St Andrews". Ladies' Golf Union. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007. "Golf returns to Olympics in 2016, but many questions remain". Retrieved 16 September 2016. "Golf". Rio 2016. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016. Leviticus, Jill. "When Were Women Allowed to Play Golf?". LiveStrong.con. Retrieved 21 December 2017. "Timeline – Important Events in the History of Women's Golf". nancyberkley.com. Retrieved 21 December 2017. "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden - a history". Women's Golf Journal. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Litsky, Frank (25 November 1997). "Joyce Wethered, 96, Top Golfer of the 20's". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Phlegar, Ben (7 April 1948). "Men Only—Answer To Mrs. Zaharias Golf Entry". The Telegraph-Herald. Dubuque, Iowa. Associated Press. p. 11. Retrieved 21 December 2017 – via news.google.com. "Overview Of Title IX Of The Education Amendments Of 1972, 20 U.S.C. A§ 1681 Et. Seq". Department of Justice. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Hennessy, John (7 September 1977). "Golf". The Times. London. p. 8. Retrieved 18 September 2018. Saffer, Max (8 April 2016). "Big gap in earnings between men and women professional golfers". espnW. Retrieved 21 December 2017. External links Golf at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata The R&A, St Andrews USGA: United States Golf Association Golf Australia, national governing body of Australia International Golf Federation (IGF) vte Golf Overview History Glossary Outline Rules penalties playoffs etiquette Stroke play scoring handicap Match play four-ball alternate shot Golf course links teeing ground hazards Equipment golf clubs golf ball tee Technical Golf stroke mechanics Instruction Drive Golfers Professional golfer tours Male golfers Female golfers Men's major winners Women's major winners Senior major winners Olympic medalists Most wins Asian Tour Australasia Tour Challenge Tour European Tour European Senior Tour Japan Golf Tour Ladies European Tour LPGA Tour PGA Tour PGA Tour Champions Sunshine Tour Korn Ferry Tour Majors (Grand Slam, Triple Crown) Men Masters Tournament Augusta National Golf Club PGA Championship U.S. Open The Open Championship venues Claret Jug Women ANA Inspiration U.S. Women's Open Women's PGA Championship The Evian Championship Women's British Open Senior The Tradition Senior PGA Championship U.S. Senior Open Senior Players Championship Senior Open Championship Senior Women's Senior LPGA Championship U.S. Senior Women's Open International events Team Curtis Cup Eisenhower Trophy Espirito Santo Trophy International Crown Presidents Cup Ryder Cup Solheim Cup Walker Cup World Cup Multi-sport event Asian Games Inter-Allied Games Island Games Pacific Games Pan American Games Summer Olympics Summer Universiade Youth Olympic Games Rankings Men No 1s top 10 Women Amateur Countries Australia China India Ireland Philippines Russia Scotland Thailand United States Venues Driving range Lists of golf courses Canada Hawaii India North Dakota Philippines Portugal United Kingdom links courses designed by Jack Nicklaus Years 1353–1850 1851–1945 1945–1999 2000–2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Governing bodies International Golf Federation The R&A United States Golf Association Golf Canada Professional Golfers' Association (Great Britain and Ireland) Professional Golfers' Association of America LPGA PGA Tour PGA European Tour American Society of Golf Course Architects World Golf Teachers Federation Miscellaneous Awards Architects Caddie Greenskeeper World Golf Hall of Fame British Golf Museum USGA Museum Jack Nicklaus Museum Caddie Hall of Fame Evans Scholars Foundation Variations Beach golf Disc golf Footgolf GolfCross Hickory golf Indoor golf Long drive Miniature golf Park golf Pitch and putt Shotgun start Skins game Snow golf Speed golf Urban golf Media Golf Channel personalities GolfTV Golf Digest Golf Magazine Golf World Golfweek Links Travel + Leisure Golf Video games Category Portal vte Golf at multi-sport events Asian Games Asian Youth Games Bolivarian Games Canada Summer Games Central American and Caribbean Games Games of the Small States of Europe Inter-Allied Games Island Games Olympics Pacific Games Pan American Games Pan Arab Games South American Games South Asian Games Southeast Asian Games Universiade Youth Olympic Games vte Summer Olympic sports Core program Aquatics Artistic Diving Swimming Water polo Archery Athletics Badminton Basketball 3x3 Boxing Canoeing Canoe slalom Canoe sprint Cycling BMX racing Freestyle BMX Mountain bike Road cycling Track cycling Equestrian Dressage Eventing Show jumping Fencing Field hockey Football Golf Gymnastics Artistic gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics Trampolining Handball Judo Modern pentathlon Rowing Rugby sevens Sailing Shooting Table tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Beach volleyball Weightlifting Wrestling Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling 2020 addition Baseball / Softball Karate Skateboarding Sport climbing Surfing Condition: Very Good, Condition: In Very Good Condition, Type: Game, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Custom Bundle: No, Manufacturer warranty: None, Rating: PEGI 3, Brand: Wii, Game Name: Tiger Woods PGA Tour 07, Release Year: 2007, Genre: Sports, Platform: Nintendo Wii, Sports Sub-Genre: Golf, Features: Multiplayer, Publisher: Activision, Region Code: PAL, MPN: 15546

PicClick Insights PicClick Exclusive
  •  Popularity - 1,429 views, 51.0 views per day, 28 days on eBay. Super high amount of views. 0 sold, 1 available.
  •  Price -
  •  Seller - 17,045+ items sold. 0.3% negative feedback. Great seller with very good positive feedback and over 50 ratings.
Similar Items