1871 Canada Queen Victoria Solid Silver Cent Coin Antique Vintage Old Victorian

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (17,263) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 401854892011 1871 25 Cents Solid Silver I bought this coin as part of a Box of Coins from a Flea Market 1871 Sold Silver Canada 25 Cents from the Reign of Queen Victoria In Good Conditon for its age but it has been holed Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP I have a lot of Old Coins and Antique Memrobilia on Ebay so Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 12,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items! 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The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe Victoria (r. 1837-1901) Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on 24 May 1819. She was the only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III. Her father died shortly after her birth and she became heir to the throne because the three uncles who were ahead of her in the succession - George IV, Frederick Duke of York, and William IV - had no legitimate children who survived. Queen Victoria Warmhearted and lively, Victoria had a gift for drawing and painting; educated by a governess at home, she was a natural diarist and kept a regular journal throughout her life. On William IV's death in 1837, she became Queen at the age of 18. Queen Victoria is associated with Britain's great age of industrial expansion, economic progress and, especially, empire. At her death, it was said, Britain had a worldwide empire on which the sun never set. In the early part of her reign, she was influenced by two men: her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and then her husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840. Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a 'constitutional monarchy', in which the monarch had very few powers but could use much influence. Albert took an active interest in the arts, science, trade and industry; the project for which he is best remembered was the Great Exhibition of 1851, the profits from which helped to establish the South Kensington museums complex in London. PDF iconRead extracts from Victoria's diaries Her marriage to Prince Albert produced nine children between 1840 and 1857. Most of her children married into other Royal families of Europe. Edward VII (born 1841), married Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark. Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 1844) married Marie of Russia. Arthur, Duke of Connaught (born 1850) married Louise Margaret of Prussia. Leopold, Duke of Albany (born 1853) married Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont. Victoria, Princess Royal (born 1840) married Friedrich III, German Emperor. Alice (born 1843) married Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. Helena (born 1846) married Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. Louise (born 1848) married John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll. Beatrice (born 1857) married Henry of Battenberg. Victoria bought Osborne House (later presented to the nation by Edward VII) on the Isle of Wight as a family home in 1845, and Albert bought Balmoral in 1852. Victoria was deeply attached to her husband and she sank into depression after he died, aged 42, in 1861. She had lost a devoted husband and her principal trusted adviser in affairs of state. For the rest of her reign she wore black. Until the late 1860s she rarely appeared in public; although she never neglected her official Correspondence, and continued to give audiences to her ministers and official visitors, she was reluctant to resume a full public life. She was persuaded to open Parliament in person in 1866 and 1867, but she was widely criticised for living in seclusion and quite a strong republican movement developed. Seven attempts were made on Victoria's life, between 1840 and 1882 - her courageous attitude towards these attacks greatly strengthened her popularity. With time, the private urgings of her family and the flattering attention of Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880, the Queen gradually resumed her public duties. In foreign policy, the Queen's influence during the middle years of her reign was generally used to support peace and reconciliation. In 1864, Victoria pressed her ministers not to intervene in the Prussia-Denmark war, and her letter to the German Emperor (whose son had married her daughter) in 1875 helped to avert a second Franco-German war. On the Eastern Question in the 1870s - the issue of Britain's policy towards the declining Turkish Empire in Europe - Victoria (unlike Gladstone) believed that Britain, while pressing for necessary reforms, ought to uphold Turkish hegemony as a bulwark of stability against Russia, and maintain bi-partisanship at a time when Britain could be involved in war. Victoria's popularity grew with the increasing imperial sentiment from the 1870s onwards. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown, with the position of Governor General upgraded to Viceroy, and in 1877 Victoria became Empress of India under the Royal Titles Act passed by Disraeli's government. During Victoria's long reign, direct political power moved away from the sovereign. A series of Acts broadened the social and economic base of the electorate. These acts included the Second Reform Act of 1867; the introduction of the secret ballot in 1872, which made it impossible to pressurise voters by bribery or intimidation; and the Representation of the Peoples Act of 1884 - all householders and lodgers in accommodation worth at least £10 a year, and occupiers of land worth £10 a year, were entitled to vote. Despite this decline in the Sovereign's power, Victoria showed that a monarch who had a high level of prestige and who was prepared to master the details of political life could exert an important influence. This was demonstrated by her mediation between the Commons and the Lords, during the acrimonious passing of the Irish Church Disestablishment Act of 1869 and the 1884 Reform Act. It was during Victoria's reign that the modern idea of the constitutional monarch, whose role was to remain above political parties, began to evolve. But Victoria herself was not always non-partisan and she took the opportunity to give her opinions, sometimes very forcefully, in private. After the Second Reform Act of 1867, and the growth of the two-party (Liberal and Conservative) system, the Queen's room for manoeuvre decreased. Her freedom to choose which individual should occupy the premiership was increasingly restricted. In 1880, she tried, unsuccessfully, to stop William Gladstone - whom she disliked as much as she admired Disraeli and whose policies she distrusted - from becoming Prime Minister. She much preferred the Marquess of Hartington, another statesman from the Liberal party which had just won the general election. She did not get her way. She was a very strong supporter of Empire, which brought her closer both to Disraeli and to the Marquess of Salisbury, her last Prime Minister. Although conservative in some respects - like many at the time she opposed giving women the vote - on social issues, she tended to favour measures to improve the lot of the poor, such as the Royal Commission on housing. She also supported many charities involved in education, hospitals and other areas. Victoria and her family travelled and were seen on an unprecedented scale, thanks to transport improvements and other technical changes such as the spread of newspapers and the invention of photography. Victoria was the first reigning monarch to use trains - she made her first train journey in 1842. In her later years, she became the symbol of the British Empire. Both the Golden (1887) and the Diamond (1897) Jubilees, held to celebrate the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the Queen's accession, were marked with great displays and public ceremonies. On both occasions, Colonial Conferences attended by the Prime Ministers of the self-governing colonies were held. Despite her advanced age, Victoria continued her duties to the end - including an official visit to Dublin in 1900. The Boer War in South Africa overshadowed the end of her reign. As in the Crimean War nearly half a century earlier, Victoria reviewed her troops and visited hospitals; she remained undaunted by British reverses during the campaign: 'We are not interested in the possibilities of defeat; they do not exist.' Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, on 22 January 1901 after a reign which lasted almost 64 years, then the longest in British history. Her son, Edward VII succeeded her. She was buried at Windsor beside Prince Albert, in the Frogmore Royal Mausoleum, which she had built for their final resting place. Above the Mausoleum door are inscribed Victoria's words: Farewell best beloved, here at last I shall rest with thee, with thee in Christ I shall rise again he shilling (1/-) was a coin worth one twentieth of a pound sterling, or twelve pence. It was first minted in the reign of Henry VII as the testoon, and became known as the shilling from the Old English scilling,[1] sometime in the mid-sixteenth century, circulating until 1990. The word bob was sometimes used for a monetary value of several shillings, e.g. "ten bob note". Following decimalisation on 15 February 1971 the coin had a value of five new pence. It was made from silver from its introduction in or around 1503 until 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, e.g. forty-two pence would be three shillings and six pence (3/6), pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d. Although the coin was not minted until the sixteenth century, the value of a shilling had been used for accounting purposes since the Anglo-Saxon period. Originally, a shilling was deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent, or a sheep elsewhere.[2] The value of one shilling equalling 12d was set by the Normans following the conquest; prior to this various Anglo-Saxon coins equalling 4, 5, and 12 pence had all been known as shillings.[ United Kingdom Value 12 pence sterling Mass (1816–1970) 5.66 g Diameter (1816–1970) 23.60 mm Edge Milled Composition (1503–1816) Silver (1816–1920) 92.5% Ag (1920–1946) 50% Ag (1947–1970) Cupronickel[nb 1] Years of minting c. 1548-1967 Obverse British shilling 1963 obverse.png Design Profile of the monarch (Elizabeth II design shown) Designer Mary Gillick Design date 1953 Reverse British shilling 1963 reverse.png Design Various (coat of arms of England design shown) Designer William Gardner Design date 1947 The first coins of the pound sterling with the value of 12d were minted in 1503[4] or 1504[3] and were known as testoons. The testoon was one of the first English coins to bear a real (rather than a representative) portrait of the monarch on its obverse, and it is for this reason that it obtained its name from an Italian coin known as the testone, or headpiece, which had been introduced in Milan in 1474.[5] Between 1544 and 1551 the coinage was debased repeatedly by the governments of Henry VIII and Edward VI in an attempt to generate more money to fund foreign wars. This debasement meant that coins produced in 1551 had one-fifth of the silver content of those minted in 1544, and consequently the value of new testoons fell from 12d to 6d.[6] The reason the testoon decreased in value is that unlike today, the value of coins was determined by the market price of the metal contained within them. This debasement was recognised as a mistake, and during Elizabeth's reign newly minted coins, including the testoon (now known as the shilling), had a much higher silver content and regained their pre-debasement value.[7] Shillings were minted during the reign of every British monarch following Edward VI, as well as during the Commonwealth, with a vast number of variations and alterations appearing over the years. The Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. Previous issues of silver coinage had been irregular, and the last issue, minted in 1787, was not intended for issue to the public, but as Christmas gifts to the Bank of England's customers.[8] New silver coinage was to be of .925 (sterling) standard, with silver coins to be minted at 66 shillings to the troy pound.[9] Hence, newly minted shillings weighed 87.273 grains or 5.655 grams. The Royal Mint debased the silver coinage in 1920 from 92.5% silver to 50% silver. Shillings of both alloys were minted that year.[10] This debasement was done because of the rising price of silver around the world, and followed the global trend of the elimination, or the reducing in purity, of the silver in coinage.[11] The minting of silver coinage of the pound sterling ceased completely in 1946 for similar reasons, exacerbated by the costs of the Second World War. New "silver" coinage was instead minted in cupronickel, an alloy of copper and nickel containing no silver at all.[12] Beginning with Lord Wrottesley's proposals in the 1820s there were various attempts to decimalise the pound sterling over the next century and a half.[13][14] These attempts came to nothing significant until the 1960s when the need for a currency more suited to simple monetary calculations became pressing. The decision to decimalise was announced in 1966, with the pound to be redivided into 100, rather than 240, pence.[15] Decimal Day was set for 15 February 1971, and a whole range of new coins were introduced. Shillings continued to be legal tender with a value of 5 new pence until 31 December 1990.[16] Design The Scottish reverse design of a 1966 shilling. Testoons issued during the reign of Henry VII feature a right-facing portrait of the king on the obverse. Surrounding the portrait is the inscription HENRICUS DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRA, or similar, meaning "Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England and France".[5] All shillings minted under subsequent kings and queens bear a similar inscription on the obverse identifying the monarch (or Lord Protector during the Commonwealth), with the portrait usually flipping left-facing to right-facing or vice versa between monarchs. The reverse features the escutcheon of the Royal Arms of England, surrounded by the inscription POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM, or a variant, meaning "I have made God my helper".[17] Henry VIII testoons have a different reverse design, featuring a crowned Tudor rose, but those of Edward VI return to the Royal Arms design used previously.[18] Starting with Edward VI the coins feature the denomination XII printed next to the portrait of the king. Elizabeth I and Mary I shillings are exceptions to this; the former has the denomination printed on the reverse, above the coat of arms, and the latter has no denomination printed at all. Some shillings issued during Mary's reign bear the date of minting, printed above the dual portraits of Mary and Philip.[18] Early shillings of James I feature the alternative reverse inscription EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI, meaning "Let God arise and His enemies be scattered", becoming QVAE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET, meaning "What God hath put together let no man put asunder" after 1604.[19][20] In popular culture A sampler in the Guildhall Museum of Rochester illustrates the conversion between pence and shillings, going up in units of ten old pennies. A slang name for a shilling was a "bob" (plural as singular, as in "that cost me two bob"). The first recorded use was in a case of coining heard at the Old Bailey in 1789, when it was described as cant, "well understood among a certain set of people", but heard only among criminals and their associates.[21] In much of West Africa, white people are called toubabs, which may derive from the colonial practice of paying locals two shillings for running errands.[22] An alternate etymology holds that the name is derived from French toubib, i.e. doctor.[23] To "take the King's shilling" was to enlist in the army or navy, a phrase dating back to the early 19th century.[24] To "cut someone off with a shilling", often quoted as "cut off without a shilling" means to disinherit. Although having no basis in British law, some believe that leaving a family member a single shilling in one's will ensured that it could not be challenged in court as an oversight.[25] British coinage Decimal 1/2p 1p 2p 5p 10p 20p 50p £1 £2 Pre-decimal Quarter farthing (1/16d) Third farthing (1/12d) Half farthing (1/8d) Farthing (1/4d) Halfpenny (1/2d) Penny (1d) Three halfpence (1 1/2d) Twopence (2d) Threepence (3d) Fourpence (4d) Sixpence (6d) Shilling (1/-) Florin (2/-) Half crown (2/6d) Double florin (4/-) Crown (5/-) Quarter guinea (5/3d) Third guinea (7/-) Half sovereign (10/-) Half guinea (10/6d) Sovereign (£1) Guinea (£1/1s) Double sovereign (£2) Two guineas (£2/2s) Five pounds (£5) Five guineas (£5/5s) Non-circulating Commemorative 25p £5 £20 £50 £100 Maundy money Bullion Britannia Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Lunar The Queen's Beasts Landmarks of Britain See also Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling Banknotes of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins List of British currencies Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form ("native silver"), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold:[4] while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal.[5] Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis; a 94%-pure alloy is described as "0.940 fine". As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium (coins and bullion), silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewellery, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware), in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery. Its compounds are used in photographic and X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect), added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters, and other medical instruments. Hammered coinage is the most common form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca. the 15th–17th centuries, contrasting to the very rare cast coinage and the later developed milled coinage. Hammered coins were produced by placing a blank piece of metal (a planchet or flan) of the correct weight between two dies, and then striking the upper die with a hammer to produce the required image on both sides. The planchet was usually cast from a mold. The bottom die (sometimes called the anvil die) was usually counter sunk in a log or other sturdy surface and was called a pile. One of the minters held the die for the other side (called the trussel), in his hand while it was struck either by himself or an assistant. Striking coins: wall relief at Rostock In later history, in order to increase the production of coins, hammered coins were sometimes produced from strips of metal of the correct thickness, from which the coins were subsequently cut out. Both methods of producing hammered coins meant that it was difficult to produce coins of a regular diameter. Coins were liable to suffer from "clipping" where unscrupulous people would remove slivers of precious metal since it was difficult to determine the correct diameter of the coin. Coins were also vulnerable to "sweating," which is when silver coins would be placed in a bag that would be vigorously shaken. This would produce silver dust, which could later be removed from the bag. Milled coins The ability to fashion coins from machines (Milled coins) caused hammered coins to gradually become obsolete during the 17th century. Interestingly, they were still made in Venice until the 1770s. France became the first country to adopt a full machine-made coin in 1643. In England, the first non-hammered coins were produced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in the 1560s, but while machine-produced coins were experimentally produced at intervals over the next century, the production of hammered coins did not finally end until 1662. Cast coins An alternative method of producing early coins, particularly found in Asia, especially in China, was to cast coins using molds. This method of coin production continued in China into the nineteenth century. Up to a couple of dozen coins could be produced at one time from a single mold, when a 'tree' of coins (which often contained features such as a square hole in the centre) would be produced and the individual coins (called cash) would then be broken off. oins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency". Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the pope and the Roman Catholic Church. His struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and his own establishment as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church.[1] Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with both Francis I of France and the Habsburg monarch Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (King Charles I of Spain), his contemporaries with whom he frequently warred. Domestically, he is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting supremacy over the Church of England in its break from Rome in initiating the English Reformation, he also greatly expanded royal power. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder instead. He achieved much of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, many of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Figures such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. An extravagant spender, he depended on spoils from the Dissolution of the Monasteries as well as various acts of the Reformation Parliament to divert money formerly bound for Rome to greatly increase the royal income. Despite the massive influx of money from these acts, Henry was always on the verge of financial ruin, due to his personal extravagance, as well as his numerous costly, and ultimately fruitless, continental wars. His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king, and he has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne".[2] Besides ruling with considerable power, he also engaged himself as an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a male heir – which stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter would be unable to consolidate the Tudor dynasty and the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses[3] – led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with Rome (which would not allow a annulment), leading to the English Reformation. Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king.[4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI. King of England; Lord/King of Ireland (more...) Reign 21 April 1509 – 28 January 1547 Coronation 24 June 1509 Predecessor Henry VII Successor Edward VI Spouse Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr Issue Among others Mary I of England Elizabeth I of England Edward VI of England Henry Fitzroy (illegitimate) House House of Tudor Father Henry VII of England Mother Elizabeth of York Born 28 June 1491 Greenwich Palace, Greenwich Died 28 January 1547 (aged 55) Palace of Whitehall, London Burial 4 February 1547 St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Anglicanism History Jesus Christ Paul Apostolic Succession Ecumenical councils Æthelberht Edwin Offa Celtic Christianity Augustine of Canterbury Paulinus Hygeberht Bede Medieval Architecture Henry VIII English Reformation Cranmer Dissolution of Monasteries Church of England Edward VI Elizabeth I Parker Hooker James I King James Version Charles I Laud Caroline Divines Nonjuring schism Oxford Movement St. Louis Ordination of women Homosexuality Windsor Report 19th-century engraving of Canterbury Cathedral Anglican Communion Archbishop of Canterbury Anglican Communion Primates Meeting Lambeth Conferences Anglican Consultative Council Episcopal polity Supreme Governor of the Church of England Theology Trinity (Father Son Holy Spirit) Thirty-Nine Articles Lambeth Quadrilateral Affirmation of St. Louis Sacraments Eucharist Mary Saints Liturgy and worship Book of Common Prayer Morning / Evening Prayer Liturgical year Biblical canon Books of Homilies High / Low / Broad church Other topics Continuing Anglicanism Converts to Anglicanism Ministry Monasticism Music Anglican Communion ecumenism Anglican rosary Anglicanism of the Americas Anglican rose Anglicanism [hide] v t e English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603 James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. [hide] v t e Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Henry (1514) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present) Cornwall Portal [hide] v t e Dukes of York Edmund of Langley (1385–1402) Edward of Norwich (1402–1415) Richard Plantagenet (1415–1460) Edward of York (1460–1461) Richard of Shrewsbury (1474–1483) Henry (1494–1509) Charles (1605–1625) James (1633/1644–1685) Dukes of York and Albany (18th century) George (1892–1910) Albert (1920–1936) Andrew (1986–present) Coins are pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes: these coins are usually worth less than banknotes: usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, or the general public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of silver or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. The American Gold Eagle has a face value of US$50, and the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coins also have nominal (purely symbolic) face values (e.g. C$50 for 1 oz.); but the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e.g. porcelain) have been used to produce coins for circulation, collection, and metal investment: bullion coins often serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion.[1] Today, the term coin can also be used in reference to digital currencies which are not issued by a state. As of 2013, examples include BitCoin and LiteCoin, among others. As coins have long been used as money, in some languages the same word is used for "coin" and "currency". Numismatics Claudius II coin (colourised).png Currency Coins · Banknotes · Forgery Community currencies Company scrip · Coal scrip · LETS · Time dollars Fictional currencies History Ancient currencies Greek · Roman · China · India Byzantine Medieval currencies Modern currencies Africa · The Americas · Europe · Asia · Oceania Production Mint · Designers · Coining · Milling · Hammering · Cast Exonumia Credit cards · Medals · Tokens · Cheques Notaphily Banknotes Scripophily Stocks · Bonds The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India & China around 600-700 BC. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.[2] Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value. Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was mint (coin)ed as a silver coin until the 17th century. The first copper pennies were minted in the United States in the 1790s.[3][citation needed] Silver content was reduced in many coins in the 19th century (use of billon), and the first coins made entirely of base metal (e.g. nickel, cupronickel, aluminium bronze), representing values higher than the value of their metal, were minted in the mid 19th century. Bronze Age predecessors[edit] An Oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.[4][5] These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell.[6][7][8] These, as well as later Chinese bronzes, were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes, but not "coins" in the narrow sense, as they did not carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value.[9] Iron Age[edit] Further information: Archaic period of ancient Greek coinage 1/3rd stater from Lydia, 6th century BC. Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch. Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BC Mysia. Coordinates: 60°N 95°W Canada Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre Flag {{{coatalt}}} Coat of arms Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin) "From Sea to Sea" Anthem: "O Canada"[a] Menu 0:00 Projection of North America with Canada in green Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W Largest city Toronto Official languages EnglishFrench Ethnic groups (2016)[2] List of ethnicities [hide] 74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian Religion (2011)[3] List of religions [hide] 67.2% Christianity 23.9% Irreligious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other Demonym(s) Canadian Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4] • Monarch Elizabeth II • Governor General Julie Payette • Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Legislature Parliament • Upper house Senate • Lower house House of Commons Independence from the United Kingdom • Confederation July 1, 1867 • Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 • Patriation April 17, 1982 Area • Total area 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd) • Water (%) 8.92 • Total land area 9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi) Population • Q2 2019 estimate 37,602,103[5] (38th) • 2016 census 35,151,728[6] • Density 3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (228th) GDP (PPP) 2019 estimate • Total $1.930 trillion[7] (15th) • Per capita $51,546[7] (20th) GDP (nominal) 2019 estimate • Total $1.820 trillion[7] (10th) • Per capita $48,601[7] (15th) Gini (2015) Negative increase 31.8[8] medium HDI (2017) Increase 0.926[9] very high · 12th Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD) Time zone UTC−3.5 to −8 • Summer (DST) UTC−2.5 to −7 Date format yyyy-mm-dd (AD)[10] Driving side right Calling code +1 ISO 3166 code CA Internet TLD .ca Canada (Canadian French: [kanadɑ] About this soundlisten (help·info)) is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Etymology Main article: Name of Canada While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".[11] In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.[12] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona);[12] by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada.[12] From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River.[13] In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas; until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841.[14] Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title.[15] By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth". The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using 'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951.[16] In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada fully under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, and later that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.[17] The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.[18] History Main article: History of Canada See also: Timeline of Canadian history and List of years in Canada Further information: Historiography of Canada Indigenous peoples Colour-coded map of North America showing the distribution of North American language families north of Mexico Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis,[19] the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers.[19] The term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982.[20] The first inhabitants of North America are generally hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge[21] and arrived at least 14,000 years ago.[22] The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.[23] The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks.[24][25] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.[26] The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000[27] and two million,[28] with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.[29] As a consequence of European colonization, the population of Canada's indigenous peoples declined by forty to eighty percent, and several First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared.[30] The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of European diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox to which they had no natural immunity,[27][31] conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the loss of indigenous lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of several nations' self-sufficiency.[32][33] Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful.[34] First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade.[35] The Crown and indigenous peoples began interactions during the European colonization period, though the Inuit, in general, had more limited interaction with European settlers.[36] However, from the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged indigenous peoples to assimilate into their own culture.[37] These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration and relocations.[38] A period of redress is underway, which started with the appointment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada by the Government of Canada in 2008.[39] European colonization In about 1000 AD, the Norse built a small encampment that only lasted a few years at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland.[40][41] No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored and claimed Canada's Atlantic coast in the name of King Henry VII of England.[42][43] Then Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th century.[44] In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory New France in the name of King Francis I.[45] In general the settlements appear to have been seasonal and short-lived, possibly due to the similarity of outputs producible in Scandinavia and northern Canada and the problems of navigating trade routes at that time.[46] In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony.[47] French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal (in 1605) and Quebec City (in 1608).[48] Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.[49] The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.[50] Benjamin West's "The Death of General Wolfe" dying in front of British flag while attended by officers and native allies Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec. The English established additional settlements in Newfoundland, beginning in 1610[51] and the Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after.[44] A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.[52] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, and Canada and most of New France came under British rule in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.[53] The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia.[17] St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.[54] To avert conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against British rule.[55] It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies. The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution.[17] After the successful American War of Independence, the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized the independence of the newly formed United States and set the terms of peace, ceding British North American territories south of the Great Lakes to the new country.[56] The American war of independence also caused a large out-migration of Loyalists, the settlers who had fought against American independence. Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories. New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes which led to the incorporation of Saint John, New Brunswick to become Canada's first city.[57] To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.[58] The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. Peace came in 1815; no boundaries were changed. Immigration resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815 and 1850.[59] New arrivals included refugees escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances.[60] Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.[27] The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837.[61] The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture.[17] The Act of Union merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America by 1849.[62] The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).[63] The Alaska Purchase of 1867 by the United States established the border along the Pacific coast, although there would continue to be some disputes about the exact demarcation of the Alaska-Yukon and Alaska-BC border for years to come.[64] Confederation and expansion Refer to caption An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867 Following several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[65][66] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.[67] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.[68] Between 1871 and 1896, almost one quarter of the Canadian population immigrated southwards, to the U.S.[69] To open the West to European immigration, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.[70][71] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, parliament created the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.[68] Early 20th century Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the Constitution Act, 1867, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I.[72] Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war.[73] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded.[74] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers.[75] The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party.[75] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain,[73] and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.[4] Crew of a Sherman-tank resting while parked Canadian crew of a Sherman tank, south of Vaucelles, France, during the Battle of Normandy in June 1944 The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country.[76] In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s.[77] On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada's independence.[73] The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded.[78] Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944.[73] Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.[79] The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.[73] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.[80] Contemporary era Harold Alexander at desk receiving legislation At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949 The financial crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor.[81] After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.[82] Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965,[83] the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969,[84] and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971.[85] Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.[86] Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the Canada Act, the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[87][88][89] Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country, although the Queen retained her role as monarch of Canada.[90][91] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.[92] At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement.[93] The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970[94] and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990.[95] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West.[96][97] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent.[98] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.[95] In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history;[99] the École Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students;[100] and the Oka Crisis of 1990,[101] the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and indigenous groups.[102] Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a U.S.-led coalition force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.[103] Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[104] In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War,[105] and also became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s.[106] Geography and climate Main articles: Geography of Canada and Climate of Canada Köppen climate types of Canada Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.[107] Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with the Republic of France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France.[108] By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes.[109] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans. Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[110] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost.[111] Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi);[112] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi).[113] Three of Canada's arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world.[114] Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.[115] 42 percent of the land acreage of Canada is covered by forests, approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land, made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine.[116] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.[117][118] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.[119] The Mount Meager massif as seen from the east near Pemberton. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager and Plinth Peak. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.[120] The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia.[121] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[122] Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[123] In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[124] Government and politics Main articles: Government of Canada and Politics of Canada A building with a central clock tower rising from a block Parliament Hill home of the federal government in Canada's capital city, Ottawa Canada is described as a "full democracy",[125] with a tradition of liberalism,[126] and an egalitarian,[127] moderate political ideology.[128] An emphasis on social justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada's political culture.[129] Peace, order, and good government, alongside an implied bill of rights are founding principles of the Canadian government.[130][131] Canada has been dominated by two relatively centrist political parties at the federal level,[132][133][134][135] the centre-left Liberal Party of Canada and the centre-right Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors).[136] The historically predominant Liberal Party position themselves at the centre of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned on the right and the New Democratic Party occupying the left.[137][138][139] Far-right and far-left politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society.[140][141] Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2015 election—the Liberal Party, who currently form the government; the Conservative Party, who are the official opposition; the New Democratic Party; the Bloc Québécois; and the Green Party of Canada.[142] Elizabeth II Monarch Julie Payette Governor General Justin Trudeau Prime Minister Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy—the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[143][144][145] The reigning monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also monarch of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's 10 provinces. The person who is the Canadian monarch is the same as the British monarch, although the two institutions are separate.[146] The Queen appoints a representative, the governor general (at present Julie Payette), to carry out most of her federal royal duties in Canada.[147][148] The direct participation of the monarch and the governor general in areas of governance is limited.[145][149][150] In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons of Canada and chosen and headed by the prime minister (at present Justin Trudeau),[151] the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice.[149] To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the individual who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons.[152] The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies.[149] The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[153] Canadian Senate chamber long hall with two opposing banks of seats with historical paintings The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament Hill Each of the 338 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House.[154][155] Constitutionally, an election may be held no more than five years after the preceding election, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a fixed election date in October. The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75.[156] Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.[150] Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces.[157] The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.[158] The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country. In addition, the minister of finance and minister of industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development.[159] The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes.[160] The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint.[161] Law Main article: Law of Canada The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions.[162] The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments.[163] The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to Britain, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[164] The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.[165] Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription "Victoria Regina" on one side, a man in European garb shaking hands with an Aboriginal with the inscription Indian Treaty No. 187 on the other The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered Treaties of 1871–1921 The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples.[166] Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between the indigenous and the reigning monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921.[167] These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the minister of Crown–Indigenous Relations. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982.[166] These rights may include provision of services, such as health care, and exemption from taxation.[168] The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord.[166] Supreme Court of Canada building The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since December 18, 2017 by Chief Justice Richard Wagner.[169] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.[170] Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.[171] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces.[172] However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.[173] Foreign relations and military Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada and Military history of Canada Pictured from Left to right: C.S. Ritchie, P.E. Renaud, Elizabeth MacCallum, Lucien Moraud, Escott Reid, W.F. Chipman, Lester Pearson, J.H. King, Louis St. Laurent, Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King, Gordon Graydon, M.J. Coldwell, Cora Casselman, Jean Desy, Hume Wrong, Louis Rasminsky, L.D. Wilgress, M.A. Pope, R. Chaput The Canadian Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, May 1945 Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions.[174] Canada's foreign policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions.[175] Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image.[176] The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.[177] Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[174] Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs.[178] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976.[179] Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001.[180] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).[181] Prime Minister Trudeau and U.S. President Trump meet in Washington, February 2017 Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner.[182][183] Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba, and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[184] Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie.[185] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.[79] Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II.[186] Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.[187][188] During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.[189] During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.[190] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept.[191] Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989,[73] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.[192] Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province standing by road with armoured car Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province in Afghanistan, pictured, fought with Dutch soldiers against Afghan insurgents. In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force.[193] In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them.[194] In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[195] The nation employs a professional, volunteer military force of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 reserve personnel.[196] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada's military expenditure totalled approximately C$19 billion, or around 1% of the country's GDP.[197][198] Following the 2016 Defence Policy Review, the Canadian government announced a 70% increase to the country's defence budget over the next decade. The Canadian Forces will acquire 88 fighter planes and 15 naval surface combatants, the latter as part of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. Canada's total military expenditure is expected to reach C$32.7 billion by 2027.[199] Provinces and territories Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada See also: Canadian federalism Labelled map of Canada detailing its provinces and territories A political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare.[200] Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.[201] The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government.[202] Economy Main articles: Economy of Canada and Economic history of Canada Canada is the world's tenth-largest economy as of 2018, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.73 trillion.[203] It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy.[204][205] Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the U.S. and most western European nations on The Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom,[206] and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity.[207] The country's average household disposable income per capita is "well above" the OECD average.[208] Furthermore, the Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion as of 2015.[209] Chart of exports of Canada by value with percentages Tree-map of Canada's goods exports in 2014[210] In 2014, Canada's exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $524 billion, of which approximately $351 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union, and $35 billion from China.[211] The country's 2014 trade surplus totalled C$5.1 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.[212][213] Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one.[214] Like many other developed countries, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce.[215] However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.[216] Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.[217] Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having a 13% share of global oil reserves, comprising the world's third-largest share after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia.[218] Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.[219] Canada's Department of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal and lead.[220] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.[221] Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II.[222] The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry.[223] In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA).[224] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment.[225] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994.[219] Canada has a strong cooperative banking sector, with the world's highest per capita membership in credit unions.[226] Science and technology Main articles: Science and technology in Canada and Telecommunications in Canada A shuttle in space, with Earth in the background. A mechanical arm labelled "Canada" rises from the shuttle. The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116 mission in 2006 In 2015, Canada spent approximately C$31.6 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments.[227] As of 2015, the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine,[228][229] and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists.[230] It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms.[231] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.[232] The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites.[233] Canada was the third country to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.[234] Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle.[235] Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST.[236] Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.[237] In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada's first male astronaut, followed by Canada's second and first female astronaut Roberta Bondar in 1992.[238] Chris Hadfield became the first Canadian to walk in space.[239][240] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Canada Two-colour map of Windsor area with towns along the St. Lawrence river The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada, spanning 1,200 kilometres (750 miles).[241] The 2016 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure.[242][243] Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase.[244] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.[245] The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.[246] Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,[247] driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification.[248][249] The Canadian public, as well as the major political parties, support the current level of immigration.[248][250] In 2014, a total of 260,400 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia.[251] The Canadian government anticipated between 280,000 and 305,000 new permanent residents in the following years,[252][253] a similar number of immigrants as in recent years.[254] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[255] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees,[256] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.[257][258] Canada's population density, at 3.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.6/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world.[259] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found south of the 55th parallel north.[260] About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the contiguous United States border.[261] The most densely populated part of the country, accounting for nearly 50 percent, is the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River.[241][260] An additional 30 percent live along the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.[262] The majority of Canadians (69.9%) live in family households, 26.8% report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 3.7%.[263] The average size of a household in 2006 was 2.5 people.[263] Largest census metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2016 census) viewtalkedit CMA Province Population CMA Province Population Toronto Ontario 5,928,040 London Ontario 494,069 Montreal Quebec 4,098,927 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 406,074 Vancouver British Columbia 2,463,431 Halifax Nova Scotia 403,390 Calgary Alberta 1,392,609 Oshawa Ontario 379,848 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,323,783 Victoria British Columbia 367,770 Edmonton Alberta 1,321,426 Windsor Ontario 329,144 Quebec Quebec 800,296 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 295,095 Winnipeg Manitoba 778,489 Regina Saskatchewan 236,481 Hamilton Ontario 747,545 Sherbrooke Quebec 212,105 Kitchener– Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 523,894 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 205,955 Health Main article: Healthcare in Canada Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.[264][265] It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984,[266] and is universal.[267] Universal access to publicly funded health services "is often considered by Canadians as a fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country."[268] However, 30% of Canadians' healthcare is paid for through the private sector.[269] This mostly goes towards services not covered or partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry and optometry.[269] Approximately 65% to 75% of Canadians have some form of supplementary health insurance related to the aforementioned reasons; many receive it through their employers or utilizes secondary social service programs related to extended coverage for families receiving social assistance or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities.[270][269] Health care cost rise based on total expenditure on health as percent of GDP. Countries are the United States, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Canada. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a cost increase due to a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years;[271] within twelve years it had risen to 42.4 years,[272] with a life expectancy of 81.1 years.[273] A comprehensive 2016 report by the Chief Public Health Officer of Canada found that 88% of Canadians; one of the highest proportions of the population among G7 countries, indicated that they "had good or very good health".[274] Four chronic diseases; heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes account for approximately three-quarters of all deaths.[275] In 2017, the Canadian Institute for Health Information reported that healthcare spending reached $242 billion, or 11.5% of Canada's gross domestic product for that year.[276] A 2017 cost-effectiveness analysis by the Fraser Institute showed that "although Canada ranks among the most expensive universal-access health-care systems in the OECD, its performance for availability and access to resources is generally below that of the average OECD country, while its performance for use of resources and quality and clinical performance is mixed."[277] Education Main article: Education in Canada According to a 2012 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world;[278] the country ranks first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education, with 51 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.[278] Canada spends about 5.3% of its GDP on education.[279] The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than US$20,000 per student).[280] As of 2014, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent.[281] Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada.[282] Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education provision.[283] The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,[284] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent.[107] In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent.[285] The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.[286][287] Ethnicity Main article: Canadians Self-reported ethnic origins of Canadians based on geographic region (Census 2016)[2] Indigenous North American (5.06%) Other North American [b] (27.61%) Europe (46.74%) Caribbean and Central and South America (3.38%) Africa (2.54%) Asia (14.47%) Oceania (0.20%) According to the 2016 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population),[c] followed by English (18.3%), Scottish (13.9%), French (13.6%), Irish (13.4%), German (9.6%), Chinese (5.1%), Italian (4.6%), First Nations (4.4%), Indian (4.0%), and Ukrainian (3.9%).[291] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,525,565 people.[292] Canada's indigenous population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population claimed an indigenous identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percent of the population belonged to a non-indigenous visible minority.[293] In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (5.6%), Chinese (5.1%) and Black (3.5%).[293] Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent.[293] In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups.[294] Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act,[295] and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses. Religion Main article: Religion in Canada Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism.[296] Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.[297] The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state.[298] With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life,[299] Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state.[300][301][302][303] The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives,[304] but still believe in God.[305] According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7% of the population. Much of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27% in a 2011 survey.[306][307] The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%).[3] Secularization has been growing since the 1960s.[308][309] In 2011, 23.9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001.[310] The remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which are Islam (3.2%), Hinduism (1.5%) and Sikhism (1.4%).[3] Languages Main article: Languages of Canada Map of Canada with English speakers and French speakers at a percentage Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak either or both English and French:[311] English – 56.9% English and French – 16.1% French – 21.3% Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2) A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56% and 21% of Canadians, respectively.[312] As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645).[312] Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages in consonance with Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act English and French have equal status in federal courts, parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.[313] The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec.[314] Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec.[315] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population.[316] There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.[317] Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official.[318] There are 11 indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects.[319] Several indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.[320] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.[321] Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous.[322] American Sign Language (ASL) is spoken across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools.[323] Due to its historical relation to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language (LSQ) is spoken primarily in Quebec, although there are sizeable Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba.[324] Culture Main article: Culture of Canada A political cartoon from 1910 on Canada's early European multicultural identity, depicting the French tricolour, the Union Jack, the maple leaf, and fleurs-de-lis. Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected.[325][326] Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people.[327] Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments,[328] and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity.[329][330] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many commentators speak of a French Canadian culture that is distinct from English Canadian culture.[331] However, as a whole, Canada is, in theory, a cultural mosaic—a collection of regional ethnic subcultures.[332] Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, social integration, and suppression of far-right politics, has wide public support.[333] Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control; alongside legislation with a social liberal attitude toward women's rights (like pregnancy termination), LGBTQ rights, assisted euthanasia and cannabis use are indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.[334][335][336] Canadians also identify with the country's foreign aid policies, peacekeeping roles, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[329][337] Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men. Raven crushing men under turtle shell Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men; the raven is a figure common to many of Canada's indigenous mythologies Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and indigenous cultures and traditions. Through their language, art and music, Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity.[338] During the 20th century, Canadians with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture.[339] Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, art, and media. The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire.[340] Many Canadian comedians have achieved international success in the American TV and film industries and are amongst the most recognized in the world.[341] Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output; particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines, is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.[342] As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[343] Symbols Main article: National symbols of Canada The mother beaver sculpture outside the House of Commons The mother beaver on the Canadian parliament's Peace Tower[344] The five flowers on the shield each represent an ethnicity: Tudor rose: English; Fleur de lis: French; thistle: Scottish; shamrock: Irish; and leek: Welsh. Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and indigenous sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, and on the Arms of Canada.[345] The Arms of Canada are closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version.[346] Other prominent symbols include the sports of hockey and lacrosse, the beaver, Canadian Goose, common loon, Canadian horse, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Canadian Rockies,[345] and more recently the totem pole and Inuksuk.[347] Material items such as Canadian beer, maple syrup, tuques, canoes, nanaimo bars, butter tarts and the Quebec dish of poutine are defined as uniquely Canadian.[347][348] Canadian coins feature many of these symbols: the loon on the $1 coin, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel.[349] The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf.[350] The Queen' s image appears on $20 bank notes, and on the obverse of all current Canadian coins.[349] Literature Main article: Canadian literature Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively.[351] There are four major themes that can be found within historical Canadian literature; nature, frontier life, Canada's position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality.[352] By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best.[353] Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity are reflected in its literature, with many of its most prominent modern writers focusing on ethnic life.[354] Arguably, the best-known living Canadian writer internationally (especially since the deaths of Robertson Davies and Mordecai Richler) is Margaret Atwood, a prolific novelist, poet, and literary critic.[355] Numerous other Canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards;[356] including Nobel Laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best living writer of short stories in English;[357] and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who is perhaps best known for the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture.[358] Visual arts Main article: Canadian art Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country's most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven.[359] Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39.[360] The Group of Seven were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926.[361] Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.[362] Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.[363] Music Main article: Music of Canada The Canadian music industry is the sixth-largest in the world producing internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles.[364] Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC.[365] The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.[366] The Canadian Music Hall of Fame established in 1976 honours Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements.[367] Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812.[368] The national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980.[369] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French before it was adapted into English in 1906.[370] Sports Main article: Sports in Canada Hockey players and fans celebrating Canada's ice hockey victory at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s.[371] Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse.[372] Golf, soccer, baseball, tennis, skiing, badminton, volleyball, cycling, swimming, bowling, rugby union, canoeing, equestrian, squash and the study of martial arts are widely enjoyed at the youth and amateur levels.[373] Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States.[374] Canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, as well as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Other popular professional sports in Canada include Canadian football, which is played in the Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League lacrosse, and curling.[375] Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1900,[376] and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics,[377] the 1988 Winter Olympics,[378] the 1994 Basketball World Championship,[379] the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup,[380] the 2010 Winter Olympics[381][382] and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup.[383] Most recently, Canada staged the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games, the former being the largest sporting event hosted by the country.[384] See also flagCanada portal flagNew France portal iconNorth America portal Index of Canada-related articles Outline of Canada Topics by provinces and territories Canada – Wikipedia book Notes Canada's de facto royal anthem is "God Save the Queen", which is sometimes played or sung together with the national anthem, "O Canada", at private and public events. Additionally, its first three lines are also included within the "Viceregal Salute", which is accorded to the governor general and provincial lieutenant governors. However, it has never been adopted as an official symbol of the country.[1] Includes general responses indicating North American origins (e.g., 'North American') as well as more specific responses indicating North American origins that have not been included elsewhere (e.g., 'Maritimer' or 'Quebecois').[288] All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. 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"Why Toronto should get excited about the Pan Am Games". The Globe and Mail. Further reading Main articles: Bibliography of Canada and Bibliography of Canadian history Overview Marsh, James H. (2000). The Canadian Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). The Canadian Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-0-7710-2099-5. History Careless, J. M. S. (2012). Canada: A Story of Challenge (revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-67581-0. Francis, RD; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B (2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Nelson Education. ISBN 978-0-17-644244-6. Taylor, Martin Brook; Owram, Doug (1994). Canadian History. 1 & 2. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3 Geography and climate Rumney, Thomas A. (2009). Canadian Geography: A Scholarly Bibliography. Plattsburgh State University. ISBN 978-0-8108-6718-5. Stanford, Quentin H, ed. (2008). Canadian Oxford World Atlas (6th ed.). Oxford University Press (Canada). ISBN 978-0-19-542928-2. Government and law Jacob, Joseph W. (2007). Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Democracy for the People and for Each Person. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4269-8016-9. Malcolmson, Patrick; Myers, Richard (2009). The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to Parliamentary Government in Canada (4th ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-0047-8. Morton, Frederick Lee (2002). Law, politics, and the judicial process in Canada. Frederick Lee. ISBN 978-1-55238-046-8. Social welfare Finkel, Alvin (2006). Social Policy and Practice in Canada: A History. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-0-88920-475-1. Thompson, Valerie D. (2015). Health and Health Care Delivery in Canada. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1-927406-31-1. Burke, Sara Z.; Milewski, Patrice (2011). Schooling in Transition: Readings in Canadian History of Education. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9577-0. Foreign relations and military James, Patrick; Michaud, Nelson; O'Reilly, Marc J. (2006). Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-1493-3. Conrad, John (2011). Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-55488-981-5. Granatstein, J. L. (2011). Canada's Army: Waging War and Keeping the Peace (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-1178-8. Economy Easterbrook, W.T.; Aitken, Hugh G. J. (2015). Canadian Economic History. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. ISBN 978-1-4426-5814-1. Economic Survey of Canada 2018. OECD Economic Surveys. 2018. – (Previous surveys) Council of Canadian Academies (2012). The State of Science and Technology in Canada, 2012. Council of Canadian Academies. ISBN 978-1-926558-47-9. Demography and statistics Statistics Canada (2008). Canada Year Book (CYB) annual 1867–1967. Federal Publications (Queen of Canada). Carment, David; Bercuson, David (2008). The World in Canada: Diaspora, Demography, and Domestic Politics. MQUP. ISBN 978-0-7735-7854-8. Statistics Canada (December 2012). Canada Year Book. Federal Publications (Queen of Canada). ISSN 0068-8142. Catalogue no 11-402-XWE. Culture Cohen, Andrew (2007). The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-2181-7. Magocsi, Paul R (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples. Society of Ontario, University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6. Vance, Jonathan F. (2011). A History of Canadian Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-544422-3. Indigenous peoples Dickason, Olive Patricia; McNab, David T. (2009). Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (4th ed.). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-542892-6. Ladner, Kiera L.; Tait, Myra, eds. (2017). Surviving Canada: Indigenous peoples celebrate 150 years of betrayal. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Arp Books. ISBN 978-1-894037-89-1. External links Listen to this article (info/dl) Menu 0:00 This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Canada" dated 2008-01-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Scholia has a topic profile for Canada. Canada at Wikipedia's sister projects Overviews Canada from UCB Libraries GovPubs Canada at Curlie Canada from the CIA's The World Factbook Canada profile from the OECD Canadiana: The National Bibliography of Canada from Library and Archives Canada Key Development Forecasts for Canada from International Futures Government Official website of the Government of Canada Official website of the Governor General of Canada Official website of the Prime Ministers of Canada Travel Canada's official website for travel and tourism Official website of Destination Canada Studies A Guide to the Sources from International Council for Canadian Studies vte Canada History Year list (Timeline) Pre-colonization New France (1534–1763) British Canada (1763–1867) Post-Confederation (1867–1914) World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945) Modern times: 1945–1960 1960–1981 1982–1992 since 1992 Topics Constitutional Crown and Indigenous people Economic Etymology First Nations Former colonies and territories Immigration Military Monarchical National Historic Sites Persons of significance Territorial evolution Women Provinces and territories Provinces Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Territories Northwest Territories Nunavut Yukon Government Law Constitution Monarch Governor General Parliament (Senate House of Commons) Prime Minister list Courts Supreme Court Military Local government Foreign relations Law enforcement Politics Elections LGBT rights Multiculturalism Cannabis Geography Regions (west to east) Pacific Northwest Western Canada Great Plains Canadian Prairies Northern Canada Canadian Shield Great Lakes Central Canada The Maritimes Eastern Canada Atlantic Canada Topics Animals Cities Earthquakes Islands Mountains National Parks Plants Great Lakes Regions Rivers Volcanoes Economy Agriculture Banking Bank of Canada Dollar Communications Companies Energy Fishing Oil Stock exchange Taxation Tourism Transportation Science and technology Social programs Poverty Society Education Healthcare Crime Values Demographics Topics Canadians Immigration Languages Religion 2011 Census 2016 Census Population Top 100s Metropolitan areas and agglomerations Population centres Municipalities Culture Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Festivals Folklore People Holidays Identity Literature Music Nationalisms Online media Protectionism Sports Theatre Symbols Coat of arms Flags Provincial and territorial Royal Heraldic Article overviews Index Outline Topics Research Bibliography Historiography Wikipedia book Book Category Category Portal Portal Related topics vte Countries and dependencies of North America Sovereign states Entire Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States In part Colombia San Andrés and Providencia France Guadeloupe Martinique Caribbean Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius Location North America.svg Dependencies Denmark Greenland France Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Netherlands Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten United Kingdom Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands United States Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands Venezuela Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta vte Members of the Commonwealth of Nations Sovereign states (Members) Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Eswatini (Swaziland) Fiji The Gambia Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia Dependencies of Members Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island New Zealand Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States Authority control Edit this at Wikidata BNF: cb120149708 (data) GND: 4029456-0 HDS: 3378 ISNI: 0000 0004 0377 1994 LCCN: n79007233 MusicBrainz: 71bbafaa-e825-3e15-8ca9-017dcad1748b NARA: 10044701 NDL: 00564831 NKC: ge129527 SUDOC: 027250679 VIAF: 136600716 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 136600716 Categories: Spoken articlesCanada1867 establishments in CanadaCountries in North AmericaEnglish-speaking countries and territoriesFederal monarchiesFrench-speaking countries and territoriesG20 nationsG7 nationsG8 nationsMember states of NATOMember states of the Commonwealth of NationsMember states of the Organisation internationale de la FrancophonieMember states of the United NationsStates and territories established in 1867 1871 Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century 19th century 20th century Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s Years: 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1871 in topic Humanities Archaeology – Architecture – Art Literature – Music By country Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela Other topics Rail transport – Science – Sports Lists of leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works category Works vte 1871 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1871 MDCCCLXXI French Republican calendar 79 Ab urbe condita 2624 Armenian calendar 1320 ԹՎ ՌՅԻ Assyrian calendar 6621 Bahá'í calendar 27–28 Balinese saka calendar 1792–1793 Bengali calendar 1278 Berber calendar 2821 British Regnal year 34 Vict. 1 – 35 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2415 Burmese calendar 1233 Byzantine calendar 7379–7380 Chinese calendar 庚午年 (Metal Horse) 4567 or 4507 — to — 辛未年 (Metal Goat) 4568 or 4508 Coptic calendar 1587–1588 Discordian calendar 3037 Ethiopian calendar 1863–1864 Hebrew calendar 5631–5632 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1927–1928 - Shaka Samvat 1792–1793 - Kali Yuga 4971–4972 Holocene calendar 11871 Igbo calendar 871–872 Iranian calendar 1249–1250 Islamic calendar 1287–1288 Japanese calendar Meiji 4 (明治4年) Javanese calendar 1799–1800 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days Korean calendar 4204 Minguo calendar 41 before ROC 民前41年 Nanakshahi calendar 403 Thai solar calendar 2413–2414 Tibetan calendar 阳金马年 (male Iron-Horse) 1997 or 1616 or 844 — to — 阴金羊年 (female Iron-Goat) 1998 or 1617 or 845 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1871. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1871st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 871st year of the 2nd millennium, the 71st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1871, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Contents 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 References Events January–March January 3 – Battle of Bapaume, a battle in the Franco-Prussian war occurs. January 18 – Founding of the German Empire: The member states of the North German Confederation and the south German states unite into a single nation state, known as the German Empire. The King of Prussia is declared the first German Emperor as Wilhelm I of Germany, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. January 21 – Giuseppe Garibaldi's group of French and Italian volunteer troops, in support of the French Third Republic, win a battle against the Prussians in Dijon. February 9 – The United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries is founded. February 21 – The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 was signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant. March 3 – The first American civil service reform legislation was signed into law by U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant, creating the United States Civil Service Commission.[1] March 7 – José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco, becomes Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, serving for four years. March 21 – John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne (whose father, the 8th Duke of Argyll, is the serving Secretary of State for India), marries Princess Louise. March 21 – Otto von Bismarck becomes the first Chancellor of the German Empire. March 22 In North Carolina, William Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment. The United States Army issues an order for the abandonment of Fort Kearny, Nebraska. March 26 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris. March 27 – The first Rugby Union International results in a 1–0 win, by Scotland over England. March 29 The first Surgeon General of the United States (John Maynard Woodworth) is appointed. The Royal Albert Hall in London is opened by Queen Victoria; it incorporates a grand organ by Henry Willis & Sons, the world's largest at this time. April–June April – The Stockholms Handelsbank is founded. April 4 – The New Jersey Detective Agency is chartered, and the New Jersey State Detectives are initiated. April 10 – In Brooklyn, New York, P.T. Barnum opened his three-ring circus, hailing it as "The Greatest Show on Earth". April 20 – U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Civil Rights Act of 1871. April 24 – Servant girl Jane Clouson is murdered in Eltham, England. May 4 – The first supposedly Major League Baseball game is played in America. May 8 – The first Major League Baseball home run is hit by Ezra Sutton, of the Cleveland Forest Citys. May 10 – The Treaty of Frankfurt is signed, confirming the frontiers between Germany and France. May 11 – The first trial in the Tichborne case begins, in the London Court of Common Pleas. May 21 – The first rack railway in Europe, the Vitznau–Rigi Railway on Mount Rigi in Switzerland, is opened. May 28 – Following the invasion of the Paris Commune by Government troops, 147 Communards, the last defenders of the workers' district of Belleville, are shot, on the last day of the Bloody Week (Semaine Sanglante), in which the Commune is crushed. May 30 – French Third Republic: Government suppression of the Paris Commune rebellion is completed. June 1 – Bombardment of the Selee River Forts: Koreans attack two United States Navy warships. June 10 – United States expedition to Korea: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 members of the United States Marine Corps, in a punitive naval attack on the Han River forts, on Ganghwa Island in Korea. June 18 – The Universities Tests Act 1871 removes restrictions limiting access to Oxford, Cambridge and Durham universities to members of the Church of England. July–September July 13 – The first cat exhibition is held at the Crystal Palace of London. July 20 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. C. W. Alcock proposes that "a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association", giving birth to the FA Cup. July 21 – August 26 – The first ever photographs of Yellowstone National Park region are taken by photographer William Henry Jackson, during the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871. July 22 – The foundation stone of the first Tay Rail Bridge is laid;[2] the bridge collapses in a storm eight years later. July 28 – The Annie becomes the first boat ever launched on Yellowstone Lake, in the Yellowstone National Park region. August 9 – One of the few known major hurricanes to strike what become the US state of Hawaii caused significant damage on Hawai'i and Maui[3][4] August 29 – The abolition of the han system is carried out in Japan. August 31 – Adolphe Thiers becomes President of the French Republic. September 2 – Whaling Disaster of 1871: The Comet, a brig used by whalers, becomes the first of 33 ships to be crushed in the Arctic ice by an early freeze.[5] Remarkably, all 1,219 people on the abandoned ships are rescued without a single loss of life.[6] September 3 – New York City residents, tired of the corruption of Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed, meet to form the Committee of Seventy to reform local politics.[7] October–December October 8 – Four major fires break out on the shores of Lake Michigan in Chicago; Peshtigo, Wisconsin; Holland, Michigan; and Manistee, Michigan. The Great Chicago Fire is the most famous of these, leaving nearly 100,000 people homeless, although the Peshtigo Fire kills as many as 2,500 people, making it the deadliest fire in United States history. October 12 – The Criminal Tribes Act is enacted by the British Raj in India, naming over 160 communities as "Denotified Tribes", allegedly habitually criminal (it will be repealed in 1949, after Indian independence). October 20 – The Royal Regiment of Artillery forms the first regular Canadian army units, when they create two batteries of garrison artillery, which later become the Royal Canadian Artillery. October 24 – Chinese massacre of 1871. In Los Angeles' Chinatown, 18 Chinese immigrants are killed by a mob of 500 men. October 27 British forces march into the Klipdrift Republic, and annex the territory as Griqualand West Colony. Henri, Count of Chambord, refuses to be crowned "King Henry V of France" until France abandons its tricolor, and returns to the old Bourbon flag. Boss Tweed, the Grand Sachem of Tammany Hall, is arrested. November 5 – Wickenburg Massacre: Six men travelling by stagecoach, in the Arizona Territory, are reportedly murdered by Yavapai people. November 7 – The London–Australia telegraph cable is brought ashore at Darwin.[8] November 10 – Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh-born correspondent for the New York Herald, locates missing Scottish explorer and missionary Dr. David Livingstone in Ujiji, near Lake Tanganyika, and greets him by saying, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"[9] November 17 The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the state of New York. George Biddell Airy presents his discovery that astronomical aberration is independent of the local medium. December 10 – German chancellor Otto von Bismarck tries to ban Catholics from the political stage, by introducing harsh laws concerning the separation of church and state. December 19 – The city of Birmingham, Alabama, is incorporated with the merger of three existing towns. December 24 – The opera Aida opens in Cairo, Egypt. December 25 – The Reading Football Club is formed. December 26 – Thespis, the first of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, premières. It does modestly well, but the two composers will not collaborate again for four years. Date unknown Gold is discovered at Pilgrim's Creek in the Pilgrim's Rest area. When an 83.50 carats (16.700 g) diamond is discovered, a diamond rush results, and the town of New Rush springs up. The provinces of Alsace and Lorraine are transferred from France to Germany. British trade unions are legalized. Heinrich Schliemann begins the excavation of Troy. Japan forms its own nationwide police force based on the French model. William M. Tweed serves his last year as the "Boss" of the Tammany Hall political machine in New York. The South Improvement Company is formed by John D. Rockefeller and a group of major railroad interests, in an early effort to organize and control the American petroleum industry. The Harvard Summer School is founded. The Danish Women's Society is founded in Denmark. The Constitution of the German Empire abolishes all restrictions on Jewish marriage, choice of occupation, place of residence, and property ownership. Exclusion from government employment and discrimination in social relations remain in effect. The American minister to China takes five warships to attempt to "open up" Korea, but his forces leave after exchanges of fire result in 250 Koreans dying, and the Korean government still unwilling to make any concessions. Virginia adopts a new Constitution, taking into account, among other things, all of the counties that had left Virginia in 1863 to form the new non-slave state of West Virginia. No other state has ever formed by breaking off from another without the consent of the legislature of the parent state, as in the cases of Vermont, Kentucky, and Maine. In Hanover, the German company Continental AG is founded. Tsutsuke Taisha, in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, is officially renamed Izumo Taisha.[citation needed] Modern "neoclassical economics" is born (See William Stanley Jevons, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, and Carl Menger). Births January–June James Weldon Johnson Friedrich Ebert Birdie Blye Heinrich Mann Christian Morgenstern Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach January 1 – Manuel Gondra, Paraguayan author and journalist, 21st President of Paraguay (d. 1927) January 7 – Félix Édouard Justin Émile Borel, French mathematician, politician (d. 1956) January 9 – Eugène Marais, South African lawyer, naturalist, poet and writer (d. 1936) January 17 David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, British admiral (d. 1936) Nicolae Iorga, 34th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1940) January 28 – Olga Rudel-Zeynek, Austrian politician (d. 1948) January 30 – Wilfred Lucas, Canadian-born actor (d. 1940) February 4 – Friedrich Ebert, President of Germany (d. 1925) February 9 – Howard Taylor Ricketts, American pathologist (d. 1910) February 14 – Florence Roberts, American actress (d. 1927) February 15 – John W. Nordstrom, Swedish-born American co-founder of the Nordstrom department store chain (d. 1963) February 18 – Harry Brearley, English inventor (d. 1948) February 27 – Otto Praeger, American postal official, implements U.S. Airmail (d. 1948) February 28 – Manuel Díaz Rodríguez, Venezuelan writer (d. 1927) March 1 – Ben Harney, American composer and pianist (d. 1938) March 4 – Boris Galerkin, Russian mathematician (d. 1945) March 5 – Rosa Luxemburg, German politician (d. 1919) March 6 – Afonso Costa, Prime Minister of Portugal (d. 1937) March 12 – Kitty Marion, German-born actress and women's rights activist in England and the United States (d. 1944) March 15 – Constantin Argetoianu, 41st Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1955) March 17 – Konstantinos Pallis, Greek general (d. 1941) March 19 – Schofield Haigh, English cricketer (d. 1921) March 24 – Birdie Blye, American pianist (d. 1935) March 27 – Heinrich Mann, German writer (d. 1950) March 31 – Arthur Griffith, President of Ireland (d. 1922) April 4 – Luke McNamee, American admiral (d. 1952) April 8 – Clarence Hudson White, American photographer (d. 1925) April 12 – Ioannis Metaxas, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1941) April 13 – Jurgis Matulaitis-Matulevičius, Lithuanian author, Roman Catholic archbishop and blessed (d. 1927) April 15 – Jonathan Zenneck, German physicist, electrical engineer (1959) May 2 – Francis P. Duffy, Canadian-born American Catholic priest (d. 1932) May 3 – Walter Robinson Parr, English-born American Congregational pastor (d. 1922) May 6 Victor Grignard, French chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate (d. 1935) Christian Morgenstern, German author (d. 1914) May 7 – Gyula Károlyi, 29th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1947) May 15 – Kōzō Satō, Japanese admiral (d. 1948) May 27 – Georges Rouault, French painter, graphic artist (d. 1958) June 12 – Ernst Stromer, German paleontologist (d. 1952) June 14 – Jacob Ellehammer, Danish inventor (d. 1946) June 17 – James Weldon Johnson, American author, politician, diplomat, critic, journalist, poet, anthologist, educator, lawyer, songwriter and early civil rights activist (d. 1938) June 18 – Edmund Breese, American actor (d. 1936) June 21 – DeWitt Jennings, American actor (d. 1937) June 23 – Jantina Tammes, Dutch plant biologist (d. 1947) June 26 – Reginald R. Belknap, United States Navy rear admiral (d. 1959) July–December Marcel Proust Orville Wright Ernest Rutherford Pietro Badoglio July 6 – Evelyn Selbie, American actress (d. 1950) July 7 – Richard Carle, American actor (d. 1941) July 10 – Marcel Proust, French writer (d. 1922) July 17 – Lyonel Feininger, German painter (d. 1956) July 18 – Sada Yacco, Japanese stage actress (d. 1946) July 25 – Richard Ernest Turner, Canadian soldier (d. 1961) August 1 – John Lester, American cricketer (d. 1969) August 10 – Aino Sibelius, wife of Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (d. 1969) August 12 – Gustavs Zemgals, 2nd President of Latvia (d. 1939) August 13 – Karl Liebknecht, German politician (d. 1919) August 14 – Guangxu Emperor of China (d. 1908) August 19 Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer, co-inventor of the airplane with brother Wilbur (d. 1948) Joseph E. Widener, American art collector (d. 1943) August 23 – Sofia Panina, Russian politician (d. 1956) August 25 Nils Edén, 15th Prime Minister of Sweden (d. 1945) Ross Winn, American anarchist writer, publisher (d. 1912) August 27 – Theodore Dreiser, American writer (d. 1945) August 29 – Albert François Lebrun, French politician (d. 1950) August 30 – Ernest Rutherford, New Zealand physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 1937) September 1 – J. Reuben Clark, Under Secretary of State for U.S. President Calvin Coolidge (d. 1961) September 10 – Charles Collett, English Great Western Railway chief mechanical engineer (d. 1952) September 17 – Eivind Astrup, Norwegian Arctic explorer (d. 1895) September 19 – Frederick Ruple, Swiss-born American portrait painter (d. 1938) September 24 – Lottie Dod, English athlete (d. 1960) September 26 – Winsor McCay, American cartoonist, animator (d. 1934) September 27 – Grazia Deledda, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1936) September 28 – Pietro Badoglio, Italian general, prime minister (d. 1956) October 2 – Cordell Hull, United States Secretary of State, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1955) October 19 – Walter Bradford Cannon, American physiologist (d. 1945) October 11 Harriet Boyd Hawes, American archaeologist (d. 1945) Johan Oscar Smith, Norwegian Christian leader, founder of the Brunstad Christian Church (d. 1943) October 17 – Dénes Berinkey, 21st Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1944) October 25 – John Gough, British general, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1915) October 30 Buck Freeman, American baseball player (d. 1949) Paul Valéry, French poet (d. 1945) November 1 – Stephen Crane, American writer (d. 1900) November 3 – Albert Goldthorpe, English rugby league footballer (d. 1943) November 23 – William Watt, Australian politician, Premier of Victoria (d. 1946) December 9 – Joe Kelley, American Baseball Hall of Famer (d. 1943) December 13 – Emily Carr, Canadian artist (d. 1945) December 17 – Virginia Fábregas, Mexican actress (d. November 17, 1950)[10] Date Unknown Sevasti Qiriazi, Albanian educator, women's rights activist (d. 1949) Qiu Yufang, Chinese revolutionary, writer and feminist (d. 1904) Deaths January–June John Herschel Samuel Harvey Taylor January 8 – José Trinidad Cabañas, Honduran general, president and national hero (b. 1805) January 13 – Kawakami Gensai, Japanese swordsman of the Bakumatsu period (b. 1834) January 15 – Edward C. Delavan, American temperance movement leader (b. 1793) January 19 – Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales (b. 1804) January 25 – Jeanne Villepreux-Power, French marine biologist (b. 1794) January 29 – Samuel Harvey Taylor, 6th Principal of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts (b. 1807) February 10 – Étienne Constantin de Gerlache, 1st Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1785) February 12 – Alice Cary, American poet, sister of Phoebe Cary (b. 1820) February 20 – Paul Kane, Irish-born painter (b. 1810) February 22 – Sir Charles Shaw, British army officer and police commissioner (b. 1795) March – Emma Fürstenhoff, Swedish florist (b. 1802) March 18 – Augustus De Morgan, English professor of mathematics, mathematician (b. 1806) April 7 Prince Alexander John of Wales (b. April 6, prematurely) April 7 – Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, Austrian admiral (b. 1827) April 25 – Jane Clouson, teenaged British murder victim (b. 1854) May 11 – John Herschel, English astronomer (b. 1792) May 12 – Elzéar-Henri Juchereau Duchesnay, Canadian politician (b. 1809) May 18 – Constance Trotti, Belgian salonniére, culture patron (b. 1800) May 23 – Jarosław Dąbrowski, Polish general (b. 1836) June 9 – Anna Atkins, British botanist (b. 1799) July–December Cristina Trivulzio Belgiojoso July 5 – Cristina Trivulzio Belgiojoso, Italian noble, patriot, writer and journalist (b. 1808) July 15 – Tad Lincoln, youngest son of American President Abraham Lincoln (b. 1853) July 31 – Phoebe Cary, American poet, sister to Alice Cary (b. 1824) August 9 – John Paterson, politician in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly (b. 1831) September 16 – Jan Erazim Vocel, Czech poet, archaeologist, historian and cultural revivalist (b. 1803) September 20 – John Coleridge Patteson, Anglican bishop, missionary (martyred) (b. 1827) September 21 – Charlotte Elliott, English hymnwriter (b. 1789) September 23 – Louis-Joseph Papineau, Canadian politician (b. 1786) October 4 – Sarel Cilliers, Voortrekker leader, preacher (b. 1801) October 7 – Sir John Burgoyne, British field marshal (b. 1782) October 16 – Martha Hooper Blackler Kalopothakes, American missionary, journalist, translator (b. 1830) October 18 – Charles Babbage, English mathematician, inventor (b. 1791) November 2 – Athalia Schwartz, Danish writer, journalist and educator (b. 1821) November 22 – Oscar James Dunn, Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana (b. 1825) December 21 – Luise Aston, German author, feminist (b. 1814) December 28 – John Henry Pratt, English clergyman, mathematician (b. 1809) References "Civil Service Commission", in Landmark Legislation, 1774-2002: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties, ed. by Stephen W. Stathis (Congressional Quarterly Press, 2003) p107 BBC History, July 2011, p12 Businger, Steven; M. P. Nogelmeier; P. W. U. Chinn; T. Schroeder (2018). "Hurricane with a History: Hawaiian Newspapers Illuminate an 1871 Storm". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99 (2): 137–47. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0333.1. Businger, Steven; Nogelmeier, M. Puakea; Chinn, Pauline W. U.; Schroeder, Thomas (February 1, 2018). "Hurricane with a History: Hawaiian Newspapers Illuminate an 1871 Storm". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 99 (1): 137–147. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0333.1. Retrieved April 10, 2018. Edward Joesting, Kauai: The Separate Kingdom (University of Hawaii Press, 1988) p171 John Taliaferro, In a Far Country: The True Story of a Mission, a Marriage, a Murder, and the Remarkable Reindeer Rescue of 1898 (PublicAffairs, 2007) p179 Mitchell Snay, Horace Greeley and the Politics of Reform in Nineteenth-Century America (Rowman & Littlefield, 2011) p172 "1871 Java - Port Darwin Cable". History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications. November 5, 2014. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015. Stanley, Henry Morton (1872). How I Found Livingstone - Travels, Adventures, and Discoveries in Central Africa; Including Four Months' Residence with Dr. Livingstone (1984 ed.). Crown Buildings, 188 Fleet Street, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle. p. 412. ISBN 9780705415132. "Virginia Fábregas". Rotonda de las Personas Ilustres. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014. Condition: In Good Condition for its age almost 150 years old but it has been holed, Country/Region of Manufacture: Canada, Year of Issue: 1871

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